A) Aquatic Plant Agronomy & Environmental Remediation using water hyacinth, duckweed and seagrass. These plants are to be assessed as feeds with livestock as to: a) acceptability/palatability, b) nutritive value (NV) specifically N balance and c) postharvest processing as hay or silage and solid-substrate fermentation (SSF) biomass, with the potential for high-quality (HQ) feedstock as feed and for biofuel manufacturing breakthroughs in terms of economics. All classes of livestock including pigs, chickens, goats, sheep, cattle and dairy may be fed on these aquatic-based forages.
B) Feeding Hi-Sugar Forages using Marker Assisted Selection (MAS) and non-GMO Approaches Including Protoplast Fusion & Sugar-Protein Heat Damage and Use of Tannins (for Browse Trees and Shrubs) to Protect Protein. These are all to be further verified with the aid of molecular probes consisting of protein nucleic (PNA)-B12 carriered gene silencing techniques as to the mechanisms at the molecular level on rumen microbial mitogenesis as further theorized by D. A. Flores (principal investigator) based on water-soluble carbohydrates (WSC) and pre-formed amino acids (PFAA) effects on cell-cycle regulatory mechanism(s).
C) Dualized-Purposed Forages with ureolytic ensilage with yeast. Dual-purposed food-feed residuals can be further nutrified as fodders that can be nitrogen (N) - supplemented via ammoniation and delignification using yeast direct-applied with protein nucleic acid (PNA) and conjugated B12 carriered gene silencing to further boost ammoniogenesis from urea (a fertilizing compound) including straws (e. g. paddy straw), stovers (e. g. corn) and legume haulms (e. g. vines). It is predicted that both convenience and sustainability will win the battle in pretreatment for feeds.
D) "Cara-Ranching" Farming in the Philippines is proposed where there is availability in certain regions for sugarcane tops (SCT) & bagasse pithe, and paddy straw in addition to the aquatic plant species being considered including duckweed and azolla (algae) as basal rations and should be mechanized for convenience, ensiled for quality storage year-round feeding supporting productive activities in dairy production. One initiative in the Philippines is the e. g. of water hyacinth with paddy straw for dairy used as well in subsistence farming.
E) Functional Feeding has recently lauched at 'SkyeBlue' with the investigation into both animal and vegetable for food-grade sourced biomaterial, the role for their bioactive peptides (cf. biogenic amino acids in post-absorptive metabolism) and their effects as indicated on protein biomarkers in test animals with studies relating to chronic inflammation and pain response (e. g. milk fever, mastitis) and including heart health and some Cancers in human therapeutics including preventative.
Ovine Feeding Trial Proposals Using Dietetic Feeds for Nutraceuticals:
At 'SkyeBlue' dietary treatments will be accompanied with immunomodulated biomarkered assay from blood plasma with dietary treatment of brewers-dried grains as the basal ration, with and without supplements like fishmeal or grapefruit coproduct from peel, from fruit juice manufacturing, chosen via corroborating assay and the biomarkered heart health support from peptides using these proposed functional feed components such as: 1) fishmeal (with its animal protein peptides) and 2) citrus peel (with its plant peptides, viz. a dietetic with fructan activity on inflammation speculated upon), both feed candidates as dietary sources for bioactives with their proposed role or action in heart health in humans. A model system for biomarker studies would be ovine (sheep) using tissue samples as in blood plasma (best to our knowledge).
Endoscopic Studies with Biopsy/Sampling, Further Research & Analyses and BioAssaying for Bioactivity in the Lower Gut of the Ovine Model (cf. U. of Guelph for their research-based schema in interpreting results with sheep):
At 'SkyeBlue' we propose the utilization of re-entrant cannulated sheep and "sectioning" of the S. I./lower bowels (e. g. we will initially bioassay the jejunum of the S. I.) for their binding peptides at their so-called receptor sites at the inner lining and concentrating ligands there to discover their "in situ" activity after suctioned collection of the digesta fluids particularly for the digesta's soluble liquid fraction with the use of the endoscopic optical fibre probe to visualize "sectioned" S. I. (at the jejunum) via our S. I. duodenal re-entrant cannulae and through an attached on-screen videocam. The biosampled lability is stopped after gut collection using solvent fixation. Then enters the application of Nobel Prize winning G. P. Winter of the U. of Cambridge from the U. K. (2018) using our proposed HPLC separation and lower gut phage display with conjoint immunoreactivity as a diagnostic to be developed using their discovery. (Phage display we hope will become a quantitatively meaningful assay for peptides with their uptake into lower gut microbiota/use of lower gut phage for display of peptides and their immunoreaction as idiotypical markers confirming their presence in the gut sectioned digesta fluid fraction, a growing area we predict with functional feeding. Included are proposals to use re-entrant cannulation invasive techniques with sheep modification with endogastroscopic interventive protocols to study and collection of samples in the lower gut including biopsies and suction. These are gaining interest amongst other researchers.)
Further Remarks for Receptor-Peptide Binding Studies Using Proposed ELISA-like Enzyme Dye Development and their Structure-Function.
I. Receptor-Peptide Dyed Enzyme Complete Indicator System (R). There is a need to modify the enzyme(s) used in ELISA assaying techniques so that a linker is made between the putative receptor and putative peptide targets made up of x2 Ab-ELISA-like enzyme and dye to develop colour covalently attached to each other as a system approach or complex. There is apparently a way to reverse Ab-Ag (antigen) binding with stronger ionic strength, non-denaturing reagents to recover the peptide substrate target and the gut receptor binding protein target.
II. The first part of the Binding Assay is to: 1) Sample cells and digesta with an samling reentrant visual endoscope (optical fibre) and to obtain cell clones on in vitro mammalian cell culture on indicator plaes; then 2) Subject them to target peptide binding randomly; then 3) Ocular or visual assessment with detection of positively dyed clones and as to the last step or stage we will isolate the receptor cell types for further study of structure-functional relationship using phage display adapted to amplify the receptor proteind using: a) infection by phage of cells, b) incubation by phage of cells and finally phage display and multiplication of them "for making more sample" as has been suggested by the scientist G. P. Winter (2018) whose research is the basis of the bioassay described here.
III. It is tantamount not just v. important to prove the effect of existence of a relationship between bioactive peptides as agents and their digestive nutrient background (e. g. protein peptide-complex sugar and other polysaccharide interactions, also there is a need for in vivo human trials that subject individuals to gut biopsies and blood sampling for biomarkers and with other blood parameters for those associated with both productive parameters and health problems in both animals and humans.
IV. Under development then are bioassayed applications for: a) the CNS (brain and spinal cord), b) Lower gut for slow release oligomeic and c) the rumen stomach.
With cropping and bioinformatic plant genomics we parallel investigations between plant crop MAS breeding using select biomarkered genes for use and GRO-based biologic developments for the same end. Two birds with one stone so we can't beat that.
(c) D. A. Flores. SKYE BLUE (SB) INTERNET. PoCo. BC. Canada V3B 1G3.