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To study the energy and protein (MCP & feed escape) output of biomass from the specialized rumen stomach of dairy cows we consider plant material substrates, protein/amino acid supplements and microbial cell growth in addition to escape biomass.
There may be now theoretical bases for studying factors that could help determine the efficiency and action of microbial cell protein (MCP) synthesis. These have been pointed out at SkyeBlue to be aspects of microbial physiology & biochemistry: (1) transport processes & rates; (2) mitogenesis or rate of cell division as possible functions of ATP, NADPH, THF, B12, and DNA synthesis; (3) apoptosis or cell death such as fructan oligosaccharide (FOS) related to alpha-TNF and cell death at least in equine peripheral blood cell models but not lower cells, and, finally, the most reasonable of our possible mechanisms or functions, (4) uncoupling of energetic efficiency.
To discuss the plant material as substrate for microbial digestion and growth, the following factors figure in: (1) ligneous components in feedstock and digestibility of fibre, (b) boosting fructan content or water-soluble sugars, (c) plant protease activity in crops and resulting pre-formed amino acid and peptide availability to rumen microbes and their synthesis and identifying further the matter of synthesis of limiting essential amino acids in microbial metabolism.
These are crucial to understanding how to increase milk output in dairy cows to start studying the underlying molecular mechanisms in microbial and plant material, we believe, is nearing a breakthrough now after a number of decades study.
We are currently investigating possible uses of yeast (fungi) which are subsistent as rumen probiotics for essential amino acids metabolism in microbes and their growth (and GEdited "surrogate" proteins high in limiting essential amino acids) to rebalance amino acids profiles reaching the small intestines (S.I.) of cows. We are also investigating use of fungal species and their increased capacity for fibre digestion via various lignases ( esterases, etherases, and possibly, lyases).Biocontainment both via the porin plugged model are being further investigated for this purpose and immuno-based quarantining of axenic animal handlers/staffers.
Protein Boosted (GMO) Cows (R) and Conventional (non-GMO) Cows.
Cytobiology with DNA precision engineering and IVF can be used to introduce O/P regions in cassettes coding for the synthesis and secretion of milk food proteins (MFP), casein and lactoferrin, two proteins that have been studied to have an effect in protecting against certain cancers and which should be introduced in cow's milk in semi-industrialized country settings (e. g. India, Russia and China) where life-style would indicate these medicinal properties as a strong selling point similar to "golden" rice with beta-carotene by an agro-industrial giant like Monsanto (USA). GMO cows and their sires will eventually be backcrossed (various schema that can be used here) to build a sufficient 'gene pool' to bring about heterosis along with the gene edited genomic backgrounds as with growth rate, carcass quality, feed conversion efficiency and vigour, as examples. It is suggested that facilities at the Macdonald Campus Farms of McGill U., UNE-Armidale regional and in North, Central and Coastal Queensland (AU) will take up these research goals in future with a go-ahead in GMO cow production.
There is evidence now (see: Genus Farms Milling and Foods Canada, this website) that non-GMO production of seagrass farmed fodders is possible with advancing techniques to overcome rate of growth or C-sinking or optimizing the composition (viz. energy content and availability, protein nutritive value or what we have dubbed at "SkyeBlue" as "proteinogenicity" of the diet).
The ff. will be used to overcome or supplement the low-protein problem from the digestion of low-quality feeding regimes. The following are to be employed when feeding the GMO cow: (1) supplementation with HIS over-producers in yeast functional feeding; (2) supplementation with MET over-producers in yeast functional feeding; (3) interventive low-protease feeds to conserve amino acid availability in forages; (4) low-buffering capacity (Bc) from prebiotic interventives using enzyme technology active in plant forage; (5) using ensilage inoculants for fibrolysis with co-cultured feedback disinhibition to improve silage quality from acidity with fermentation of sugars to lactic acid; (6) yeast for rumen probiotics boosted for fibrolysis and increased CP yield in the microbial rumen stomach using mutagenic protoplast fusion (viz. genetically manipulated (or GM) but considered non-GMO and with surrogate "storage" proteins that have limited solubility and attack by microbial and plant proteases, and finally, (7) use of hi-amino acid forages from GM of their metabolic capacity to produce and store selected amino acids, e. g. MET and HIS in alfalfa.
The GMO cow will be supported by these "green" technologies with various of these low-quality feeds designed to deliver total feed efficiencies that are admirable, compared to more normal feeding situations proposed here.
(c) SKYE BLUE INTERNET. Port Coquitlam. BC. Canada V3B 1G3.
Last update of this entry: December 07, 2021