This laboratory/lecture course is intended for researchers at all levels from beginning graduate students through established primary investigators who want to use Drosophila as an experimental system for nervous system investigation. This three-week course is designed to introduce students to a wide variety of topics and techniques, including the latest approaches for studying nervous system development, activity and connectivity, as well as complex behaviors and disease models. Daily research seminars present comprehensive overviews of specific subfields of nervous system development or function or focus on state-of-the-art techniques and approaches in Drosophila neuroscience. Expert guest lecturers discuss their findings and approaches, and bring along their own assays and techniques for students to learn in the laboratory part of the course. The hands-on portion of the course is centered on inquiry-based projects, utilizing the different morphological and physiological measurements and behavioral paradigms learned at the course. This includes molecular-genetic analyses, immunocytochemistry, recording of activity using electrophysiology and genetically encoded calcium indicators, optogenetic and thermogenetic control of neural activity, as well as numerous quantitative behavioral measures. Collectively, the course will provide a comprehensive and practical introduction to modern experimental methods for studying the neural basis of behavior in Drosophila.