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1440 Barberry Drive
The Synthesis of SSF Yeast Residual Feeds: Bagasse, Corn and Sorghum Stover, Haulms and Rice and Wheat Straw.
by D. A. Flores
Skye Blue Internet
Port Coquitlam, B. C.
Canada V3B 1G3
The beginnings of this type of technology was with bagasse processed by a Japanese concern specifically in the Philippine Islands to feed dairy cows (viz. Holstein bred type cattle) for milk production. It therefore comes to mind that yeast processing however modified to be enhanced, refined and made cost-effective and animal trial tested can be extended to cover also other byproduct farm wastes such as sugarcane pith from bagasse, corn stover and sorghum stover, haulms from vines or legume spp. on-farm and rice and wheat straw, occupying the largest proportion of byproduct farm waste and potentially the most productive in terms of volume processed and consumed by animal livestock.
We will now outline the major stages wherein the milled substrate is processed into ''Yeast Byproduct'' feed (we already mentioned 6 possible ones in schema above).
Making The Semi-Refined Consistent Particulate Base.
First, is threshing the byproduct biomass feedstock from the field's harvest on-farm and then fine-chopping as in silage making, washing thoroughly the substrate followed by air-drying over 48 hrs, with the option to force air-dry the biomass. This followed after drying with fine grinding to a semi-consistent powder. Adaptation is made per substrate type or feedstock.
Mixing Reaction Components Prior to Live Yeast Culture (LYC) Incubation.
The dried particulate substrate or biomass is first bleached with added dilute aqeous acid (H2SO4) over a 48 hr period and then mass centirugated (industrial-type) and washed clean of any residuals and then mixed with urea-N and the pH adjusted for enzymatic conditions involving aerobic Lacasse over a few days depending on the batch weight.
Addition of LYC and Incutbation.
The yeast innoculum or LYC is applied as ff. The remixed or reconstituted LYC is counter sprayed onto the spray-lofted particulate feedstock and further auger mixed into a mixer together with a biologic added solution to the LYC just before it is stored for incubation with the feedstock. This will begin the process of hyper-boosting or producing high enough levels of HIS, ARG, LEU, MET and LYS eventually in the incubating biomass. These are so-called GROs in yeast.
The temperature, pH and time of incubation under open air conditions (S. cerevisiae, the spp. of choice is facultatively anaerobic).
Air-Spray Drying and Storage.
The biomass or substrate for feeding kept in the holding tank for incubation is effectively stored in a compacted, cool, and dry place after thorough drying by spraying onto a industrial chamber wall collecting at the base. It is then collected with the biologic already 'spent' and not in any measurable concentration, i. e. it is strictly labile after a defined period of storage, and mechanically packaged in square-rectangular bags for feed dispensing at the farm feedlot for dairy and beef cattle.
Feeding Trials Regards Nutritive Value (NV) of Energy/Protein Supplements.
It is open to question at this time what levels of amino acids can be attained and what are optimal for function use such as LBM accretion, milk solids output or production, and in general the body condition of finishing steers and lactating cattle. There is a need to test various basal rations such as hay or silage from herbage plus the addition of our highly digestible fibre-protein/AA energy-protein concentrate derived from byproduct biomass or feedstock. What remains as the most limiting amino acids for optimum nutrition is to be demonstrated or seen by nutritionists and what should be supplemented using the biologic rate of addition to LYC and volume of pre-treated biomass or substrate just prior to and during mixing and incubation conditions to effectively elevate MCP levelsl and so with incremental and critical essential amino acids that also are functional amino acids over above their nutritional value as measured in proximal analysis and predicted to produce. Remember, spiking the amino acid profile of the supplemental feed(s) will incur different if not very different results in nutritive value when manipulated in addition to its conventional role in fulfilling amino acid nutritional daily allowances or requirements.
It should be said that the proposals here are preliminary leading one to speculate what specifically is needed to be learned from further research regards amino acid nutrition in various ruminant-class animal livestock, their daily allowances to optimize hay, haylage or silage feeding, and more data obtained to study specifics of rumen digestion and supply of protein and its amino acids from it to compare and determine which are most limiting.
Last update of this entry: February 27, 2023