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  May 28, 2024
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Protein Deficiency and the Chronic Inflammatory Condition: a role for selenoproteins.


By  Danny A. Flores1, Skye Blue Publications, Port Coquitlam, B. C. Canada V3B 1G3


Corresponding Address:

1 Skye Blue Publications, Port Coquitlam, B. C. V3B 1G3 Canada.


I  Introduction.

Animal livestock protein deficiency leads to lower selenoprotein levels and activity from herbage, grains and other cereals possibly arising with selenium deficiencies in soil. In human beings on ther other hand protein deficiency leads to a weaker immune system, amongst other disorders.

We will discuss in brief the possible underlying mechanisms at the cellular/molecular level implicating protein status and immunity using selenoprotein status and function as an biomarkered indicator.


II  Selenium and Protein Deficiency and Immune Health.

It has been stated by Z. Huang et al. (2012) that selenium immune deficiency relates to activation, differentiation and proliferation in immune cell function, in particular, immune cell signaling regards: (a) redox signaling, (b) oxidative burst, (c) calcium flux and (d) effector functions at the cellular/molecular level.

We are also interested in determining protein deficiency assayed in cell culture in situ from animal models by given indices such as in plasma as in plasma albumin and specific plasma enzyme activities involving selenoproteins (see: Z. Huang et al., 2012).


III  Selenium Related to Immune Health.

Selenium has multiple biological activities and depends on the level of selenium intake; the hierarchy of activities calls for selenium biomarker assessment at different levels of selenium exposure such as GPX3 and SEPP1 which can report directly functional activity from assay and identify deficiencies and their relationship to deficient individuals.  The range for selenium assay is <20 ug/kg diet for animals and <55 ug.day for humans in deficient individuals (G. F. Combs, 2015).

Other selenium biomarkers are also needed to assess selenium status in non-deficient individuals such as in cancer risk reduction  is a primary consideration; other biomarkers for which analytical methods are just beginning to be proposed are for the low molecular weight selenium-metabolites, i. e. selenoamino acids and methylated selenium metabolites not detectable to date in biological specimens (G. F. Combs, 2015). 


IV Conclusions.

Can we make the bold proposition that selenium proteins are a biomarker for protein status and adds to the growing body of evidence that protein status and immune health including related conditions as in cancer risk levels, i. e. in acquiring the disease state have a cause and effect relationship. Indeed other neurocrine functions on immune health should also be explored in this regard. 



1) G. F. Combs, Jr. 2015. Biomarkers of selenium states. Nutrients 7(4): 2209-2236. 

2) Z. Huang, A. H. Rose and P. R. Hoffmann. 2002.  The role of selenium in inflammation and immunity: from molecular mechanisms to therapeutic opportunities.  Antioxid. Redox Signal. 16(7):705-743.



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