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Proposing Studies with Manipulating Affinity of Peptides/Amino Acids for Microbes in Protein Cell Synthesis in Rumen Digestion.
The Problem and the Potential.
The author has had decades involvement in this problem and especially with silage as a theoretical possibility although until recently it has evaded notice until so-called timed release capsules for various bioactive peptides such as vasoactive ones for regulating blood pressure was developed by Japanese scientists and now it has come to the author's attention from a Swiss commercial concern, Osmopharm SA, that develops resin polymers with ion-exchange properties that can have an affinity for charged amino acids/peptides/proteins as in the usual ion-exchange chromatograph procedures of separating out amino acids, peptides and proteins.
The "Proteinergic Theory" for Protein Nutrition in the Rumen.
To our watchers in animal nutrition we are presenting here our surmise of how feeding strategy for formulation should be conceived of in principle for protein from the rumen stomach of ungulates (for e. g., like ruminant livestock).
The "Flores theory" states that: 1) controlling protein accessibility through the rumen and 2) providing adequate support to rumen microbial cell protein (MCP) biomass synthesis is the key to optimizing the output from the rumen stomach for protein supplied in ruminant digestion and for their metabolism & physiology.
The moral of the story is that what goes IN and what goes OUT spells the overall picture to protein utilization in the whole animal, that is, protein and their peptides (and to a much less greater extent free amino acids) and non-protein nitrogen (vs protein nitrogen) mostly NH3 or ammonia N and urea-N mostly endogenous in source, are what go into the microbial cells cycle from a) recycling microbial cell protein (MCP) matter or biomass, b) feed that fails to escape rumen bypass and enters the digestive microbial process of the rumen, and c) ammonia nitrogen (N) from feed protein and subsistent in feed & recycling urea-N from endogenous flows of saliva and from the rumen wall + residual bypassing feed that escapes the rumen stomach and adds to the OUT going MCP.
The protein in fact, produces or provides digestively for binding to receptors, it is believed, in addition to polysaccharides from their oligomers to signal nutrigenomically immune responses in addition to nutrition for normal growth and development including lean body mass (LBM) accretion and for milk production in dairy animals, for selected biogenic amino acids endocrinologically, for the release of pituitary neurological growth releasing hormone (GRH) and hypothalamic growth hormone (GH) itself and other yet to be explored neurhormonal (of the brain) and hormonal factors from nutrigenomic biogenically acting amino acids (there are several we are looking for or exploring) and primarily in the bovine lactating animals and beeflot production animals and ovine models, for productive purposes, that can strengthen immune defenses with disease, lower chronic inflammatory response and including pain in the animal (e. g. mastitis in dairy cows and milk fever incidence also in the dairy cow) adding considerably to animal welfare.
It must be mentioned that amino acid species specific to and their effect on animal metabolism and animal behaviour including in human beings, we are curious about, can lead to adverse reactions when artifically manipulated by infusion either digestively or through the blood stream like possible toxicity due to imbalance relatively in levels to eacth other and or lower levels in general also associated with a response to shut down further intake of feeds or food. These have been well-studied in rat models but are believed less likely to yield results in avian spp. amongst domesticates in animal husbandry.
A Spin-off to the "theory": We are expanding on peptide technology (e. g. cardionemic vegan and meat such as with beets and tuna Bonita) to use of "proteinogenic" peptides, for microbial cell protein (MCP) synthesis, through enzymatic treatment and feed delivery through slow-release "encapsulization" using protein-carbohydrates supplements with extrusion in the feed supplement pelleting process. Simple but effective.
Resin-based Slow-Release Peptides/Amino Acids for Ruminal Applications in Livestock.
The ion-exchange resins will be designed from biopolymers with attached amino acids (acidic to basic group attached) with pectin pelleting as the backbone which is digestible at a given rate giving it a characteristic binding constant and therefore a release rate. The ion-exchange matrix in the micropellet particles on which microbial cells can attach to uptake amino acid/peptides is via microbial-driven fimbriae and pili appendages across particulate surfaces. Concentrations/dosing levels in the volume compartment of the stomach will be calculated and measured rate of uptake of both amino acid/peptide mixture ratio calculated after recovery to measure isotope labels on amino acids from of peptides/amino acids. The nature of the microbial translation and adsorption will be observed by direct confocal and electron microscopy examination with time after sampling particulates from the harvested biopolymeric pellet fraction. Osmopharm SA is a company in southern Switzerland or nr. northern Italy that believes it has technology at hand to test and document the use of time-release capsules using their unique gel matrix (the exact biopolymer involved is not known to the author) with ion-exchange movement of H2O in the process of defragmentation of the micropelleted particles.
The Proposed Experimental Design.
Now for investigating the dynamics of feed delivery via carrier exchange matrices. Using in vivo studies utilizing rumen cannulated animals for rumen sampling can now be carried out with materials as with pectin designed with ion-exchange resin groups concentrated varied accordingly and of a pKa according to the neutral point of the peptide's amino acid profile loaded into the rumen as substrate in pectin using peptide dosed with 15N stable isotope label to populate rumen contents with mixing; time of mixing established and then random sampling carried out to 15% of pooled samples, 'killed' or stopped at time of sampling, and the total pool further subsampled; the microbial cell protein (MCP) fraction is separated and measured for 15N content via 15N-NMR using differential centrifugation for microbial cells and then hydrolyzed to separate by prep liquid-liquid HPLC chromatography before recovery quantitatively of the amino acid 15N load in ug/g MCP. Comparative study is made between peptide amino acid in the pectin gel matrix and 15N content in microbial cell protein to measure a so-called "Km" of the gel matrix binding capacity generating an "S" curve to saturation of 15N concentration in MCP vs. peptide amino acid concentration in the gel matrix with the "Km" determined by drawing a line at 0.5 of the "Y" axis, the range to saturation across to the "S" curve and down to the "X" axis.
To determine the parameters to calculate experimentally a "Km," "in range," an in vitro study will be carried out first with an artificial rumen machine or Rusitec(R): a) concentration of 15N-peptide used in the gel, b) time of samplings given the mixing time in the volume of the Rusitec(R), c) the peptide compositional profile in amino acids to be synthesized and provided in bulk by the manufacturer, d) the manufacture of the gelled pellets by the pelleter machine of a given design, e) the current cost estimate of commonly available 15N amino acids labelled for making the peptides in the pellets, and f) the load of gel pellets into the Rusitec(R) machine. Analytics will be performed on the processed and treated subsamples from Rusitec(R) as per well-established technique in the laboratory as was referred to.
Note that upon investigation of rumen cannulated animals and their "dynamics" we control conditions to keep experimental protocol "neat" of inclusion of various feed materials at this point except in further practical e. g. s. with semi-purified feedstuffs like pelleted leaf meals and crushed grains (e. g. corn) and seed protein meals (soya bean).
No doubt, this is the first time new technology with ion-echange type resins used for slow time released drug agents in pharma now in use has been borrowed for use to studying microbial cell studies and MCP synthesis as one of 2 factors that was originally proposed to limit the efficiency of MCP synthes in rumen digestion in gMCP/kgOMD in the rumen: peptides/amino acids and water-soluble carbohydrates (WSC) especially where silage is involved in ruminant diets. Apart from critically measuring the rate of transport of peptides during uptake into cells other factors will also play a part in determining efficiencies. These will be discussed further elsewhere. These include ATP pools from OM digestion in the rumen including ATP from WSC vs. storage polysaccharides [insoluble fibre+soluble fibre) and rate of MCP amino acids incorporation from pre-formed amino acids (PFAA) using labelled 15N-labelled in the amino and R-grouped positions (see: LYS, ARG, GLN) in the C-skeletons weighted by its compositional contribution to MCP AA profiling.
Finally, also mentioned are developments in what are earmarked as the non-GMO, GRO front of probiotic rumen microbiotic manipulations using PNA-B12 biologics as proposed earlier by J. Trylska et al. (2017) at the Centre of New Technologies, U. of Warzawa, Poland (EU) to manipulate what is believed to rate-limiting oligopeptide transport processes through the outer cell membrane using approaches in regards of the channels for uptake, as: steric hindrance by channeling, gated-electrochemical processes, and steric and oligomeric length qualities and binding of ligands (Cf. Km) and electrochemical charge qualities of oligomeric net charge on its residual length.
Last update of this entry: November 18, 2023