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  September 25, 2016
promoting the transfer of scientific know-how between industry and academia
 
 
Registry of biomedical companies:

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SKYE EARTH WATCH

1440 Barberry Dr. the Birchland Estate Prt COQ
C. -B.
Canada
Toll free: +011-778-580-4002

Phone: +011-778-580-4002
Fax: +011-604-464-0103
E-Mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spam bots, you need JavaScript enabled to view it
Stock symbol: SKEW

Description:

Animal Feeds & Livestock Production Science. 

 

                       Agrobiotechnology & animal production systems, the pressing issue of environmental stability or impact by encroachment of production systems and livestock resources and the new open discussions on how they will impact and how to manage agro-economic resources in developing countries with further economic development. 

                       In particular, we are concerned here with: systems studies of new approaches or how to improve production and economies of production, how to transfer information on farmer problems to researchers as a way of reaching farmers and the most important issue of all and that is technology, viz. how to transfer technological innovations from the research community to farmers.

                      (See: Development Biotechnology j., PARTS A, B). 

Food Security, Trade, Climate Change and Water Resources. 

                      (See: Development Biotechnology j., PART C).  

The Approaches to Livestock Production Systems. 

                      (See: Development Biotechnology j., PART D); may be as defined in: "Small Ruminant Production: Systems for Sustainability," V. International Conference on Goats, 28-29 February 1992, Park Hotel, New Delhi INDIA; is the study of inextricable components in biological areas, e. g. agro-biotechnology, animal production science, and feed science & technology, in areas such as nutrition & health, and socio-economic research and extension or field study, for e. g., marketing and women's native role and as organized at a micro-business level and the role of capital financing through micro-loans. 

Natural Resources Development. 

                       Forestry (i. e. Silviculture) & Forest Products Industry, Marine Resources- Seafood (in general), Algae, Seaweed and Seagrasses and Energy through Alternative Sources (see: Development Biotechnology j., PART E). 

Environmental Degradation, Management and Climate Change & Maintaining Biodiversity.

                      (See: Development Biotechnology j. PART F).

                 

 

COMMENTARY:                                                

New Book Publication: ”Advances in Ligno-cellulose Biotechnology for Feed, Food and Energy.” D. A. Flores. 2016 © For submission to AuthorHouse, IN USA, Tellwell.ca, Victoria BC CA or Austin MaCauley, London U.K.  


SAMPLE CHAP.:  Genetic Engineering Crops on the Farm – Part I     

 

A. Genetic Engineering (GE)=manipulating the composition and the function of genes or DNA (ie. its molecules) with molecular tools for productive ends (e. g. agriculture productive traits). 

 

     Old Strategies with GE.

 

  1. Transgenic Bt crops (e. g. corn, soya beans, wheat, cotton) that are incorporated with the anti-Bacillus thuriegensis (Bt) insecticidal protein that is lethal to the gut of bore weevil pest, and Liberty and Basta ®  corn that are both herbicide tolerant.

     

  2. Methods Used for Transgenesis (transfer of DNA): 

 

      a. Plasmids -  vectors of small circular pieces of DNA or transfer elements with the "gene of interest" spliced in, used for e. g., with microbes modified in the animal's gut's digestion.

     b. Protoplasts are cells that have been removed of their outer cell wall leaving only the outer membrane (OM) barrier against transfection for DNA transfer

     c. Agrobacterium tumefaciens are engineered (modified) infecting viral DNA vector used with plants via these vectors.  

    d. Biolistic propulsion is by shooting gold DNA-coated particles through the calli or pluripotent vegetative cells that regenerate into plantlets.

    e. Electroporation is application of an electric field to create pores in the OM for DNA to enter and transfect.

                                                                                                                                                                                             New Strategies to “De-Risking” GE for the Consumer to Consider.  

 

Genome Editing- make genetic engineering (GE) more palatable for the consumer?

 

1) Genome Editing, what is it? 

     Process in essence involves specially designed endonucleases (endo=into)  that cleave  DNA molecules causing DSB (double-stranded breaks) in the double helix  structure. It is then the host cell’s task to repair the DSB  using the “darning” technique wherein the DNA is “stitched” back by end-joining non-homologous-type enzymes using  unlike ends or the desired end of homologous-type enzymes   resulting in a perfect gene copy insert.

 

    The successfully transformed cells with the gene of interest are then selected out via  

various experimental methodologies also called protocols via agrifiltration and then plantlet regeneration.   

 

 

2) Mitochondrial (mt) DNA cloning: maternal-side inheritance with no pollination conceivable to virtually insure environmental safety.

 

 

   Considerations: 

  1. The organ(elle) of the mitochondria is the power house of the cell’s unit with its own complement or set of DNA separate from the plastid & nuclear DNA.

  2. Cloning of gene(s) of interest is into specifically the mtDNA.

  3. Maternal segregation of inheritance of mtDNA is the key point in that it is exclusively contained and does not spread through plant pollen.

  4. NOTE: There are many more technical hurdles and research goals to attain  

    before engineering the mitochondrial genome becomes feasible.  One area is

    understanding mt genetic processes and regulation pathways including

    inheritance of many economically significant traits and genetic interactions

    between organellar & nuclear genes, for e. g. some mitochondrial genes are  

    known to migrate to the nucleus.

 

3) Possible Approaches with Genome Editing: using gene cassettes with regulatory genes

    and structural genes that code for enzyme upregulation or boosted expression or   

    downregulation or lowering expression via repression using interferent RNA (RNAi) which

    we will not go into here further and which won a Nobel Prize are all ways of using GE to

    manipulate genes and  1) their regulated activities (including deletion altogether), 2) their

 

    qualities by modifying their DNA sequences, 3) in addition to introducing novel genes

 

    or DNA material altogether (2, 3 would be more controversial of these).

 

 

B.  Regulatory Issues of GE Crops:

1)  Commercial aspects of GE (patenting rights; licensing) to sell and own seed by  

      giants like Monsanto is recognized but licensing is required if organized, legal  

      distribution and end-use can be achieved with GM seed.  There are international   

      licensing authorities to oversee this practice.

  

   Genes are the stuff of intellectual property.  There are brokers who act to transfer

   royalties that are free in the biotechnology industry to benefit smallholder African

   farmers, for e.g.,  public-private entities help to develop GM crops and in developing 

   countries is public-funded but the private licensing entities are said to eventually

   control markets for the patented product.

 

   Since the regulatory process (by the USDA, U.S. Dept. of Agric. in the U.S.A.) is a

   complex and expensive process this proposal fits and will be confined to commodity

   crops (e. g.  maize, soya beans).

 

   Since the introduction of the CRISPR/CAS9 system of genome editing in 2012 the USDA

 

   has indicated its willingness to review its rules in light of  new technologies.

 

2) GMOs are defined as both older transgenics as well as genome edited GE

    organisms.  The use of the term GMO will refer to these  organisms due to their 

    shared biosafety risk concerns for the environment to which they would be exposed        

    despite their different genetic constructs.

 

               There is considerable debate in the press and Internet in this area for their use.

 

 

     Concerns or Issues of Old Transgenesis vs the New Genome Editing of GMOs on the

     Farm:

 

    a) Food Safety to the Consumer. Genome editing eliminates the addition of foreign DNA    

       (e. g. viral DNA) in genetic engineered foods and crops compared to transgenic GE

       (e. g. Agrobacterium tumefaciens, an engineered plant virus)

 

   b) Making Modified “Endogastric Symbionts” a Possibility. Larger DNA vectors with

      plasmid transgenics result in more radical changes to the microbial phenotype

      and means less likelihood of its survival in a highly complex, competitive  

      environment.  Genome editing results in the exact gene copy insert modification.

 

  c) Possible Bio-containment Strategies: Biosafety / Biodiversity 

 

         1. Wild-type crops vs. inbred lines: mt containment

            2. Autochthonous populations in soils, water and plant surfaces:  

                feeds irradiation (UV-C)

            3.”Endogastric symbionts” passed on commensaly via saliva and

               cud with ungulates: quarantined inoculated animals


  d) Challenges presented by Climate Change / Global Warming with  

        GE Crops: 

  1. Flood tolerance

  2. Drought tolerance (irrigation is key to answering this issue in the first place)

  3. Salt tolerance

  4. Pest, insect and root-larval or parasitic resistance

     

  e) Challenges presented by Issues with Global Food Security: feed-efficiency traits in agronomy

 

  1. Low-protease forages in grasses, trees & shrubs/heat-treated

  2. Hi-sugar grasses, trees & shrubs

  3. Low-lignin forages; e. g. alfalfa is now in the market USDA-approved

 

     And others: 

  1. Beta-carotene (Vit-A) golden rice

  2. Higher rate N-fixation cultivars

  3. Higher C-sink crops (i. e.  boosted photosynthetic rate)

  4. Higher micro-mineral uptake cultivars

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      

________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

 

SKYENEWS: The current turmoil in the energy futures markets over what and who will fill the shortfall including the fuel type which should ideally be higher-chain polycarboxyols (e. g. isobutanol and isopentenol) from algal continuous culture from ligno-cellulose biomass feedstock like wheat straw, rice straw and corn stover, sisal and hemp, as examples can be done in large reserves such as from Canada and Russia and its former Soviet socialist republics and countries in Latin America which "subsist" as byproduct from farming wastes.  The sensitive issue as what States require energy from biosources the most are as ff.: 1) degree of development, 2) seasonal, 3) militarization and/or industrialization, 4) overall population demand and 5) urbanization. Trade and meeting of needs will be answered to in future through future negotiations. A case study of degree of development would be the relatively relaxed and yet sustained momentum of demand for fuels in less developed countries and then there are the urban pockets requiring steep demands for fuels and on the other hand the developing countries requiring greater demand and momentum in fuels to sustain industrial growth with large en masse population. An example of seasonal is where temperature drops unseasonably and when heating oil or when liquified natural gas (LNG) is required for heating as with Russia in regards to industrial Western Europe. Latin America, N. America and Eurasia will have to factor this in their energy demands and trade commodities exchange in future. In SE Asia where the W. Philippine Sea is brewing to be a hotbed of dispute over the 200 nautical mi. offshore shelf for mineral resource wealth claims for the Philippines, alotment of energy trade will have to be skewed towards States like Singapore, Hong Kong, ROC, Japan and S. Korea who have relative militarization/industrialization. Countries like Malaysia, Thailand, Indo-China (Vietnam, Cambodia and Laos) will also come into demand. While China with its geo-political clout and India who it is being suggested at Skye Blue will be negotiated as a specially earmarked trading partner with the Philippines in terms of skills or manpower, manufacturing, technology transfer [automotive & transportation, telecommunications, military equipment and munitions, hi-tech such as information technology (IT) and biotechnology (animal, food & health), etc.], and natural resources.

SKYENEWS: The Pacific Rim's second generation Trade Agreement in Partnership for Economic Cooperation (TAPEC) vs current ones, for e. g.,  trade of resource commodities or the outsourcing agreements that result in job creation at home and overseas, may not be as sustainable due to environmental contraints and labour problems in comparison to the Bio-Hub economic proposals that will consume natural and labour resources and proceed to trade in goods and services with equity on a solid footing compatible in intellectual capacity, given the supply of essential goods and services and developments with adequate civil government for agro-industrial planning in rural areas and more intensive, complex urban planning centres providing, for e. g., administrative services, health & emergency, education, utilities and infrastructure (water, waste recyclability and disposal, energy, telecommunications, transportation).

 

An SBO GROUP Company

 



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Last update of this entry: January 02, 2016

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