The function of the innate immune system is thought to be the recognition of invading pathogens, the activation of inflammation to control the pathogen, and the subsequent activation of the acquired immune response. The innate immune system utilises a set of germline-encoded receptors, called PRRs, in order to recognise specific molecular patterns or motifs called PAMPs (Pathogen-Associated Molecular Patterns) on invading pathogens (Medzhitov & Janeway 1998). There are three families of PRRs, the Toll-lke receptor (TLR) family, the RIG-like receptor (RLR) family and the NOD-like receptor family. The TLR family of proteins is an integral part of the mammalian innate immune system. TLRs are ancient pattern recognition receptors highly conserved from Drosophila to humans, that are expressed on immune cells and are able to distinguish a great variety of microbial ligands (Takeda, Kaisho, & Akira 2003). To date there are at least ten different TLRs that can recognise a wide variety of microbial conserved patterns. Most TLRs (TLR1, TLR2, TLR4, TLR5, TLR6) seem to activate cells by engaging their ligands on the cell surface, whereas TLR3, TLR7, TLR8 and TLR9 seem to trigger signalling intracellularly. These TLRs have been shown to reside in the ER and to recognise their ligands once they have been endocytosed (Heil et al. 2004). RLRs have been recently discovered and play a key role in sensing RNA virus invasion. They recognise viral RNA independently of TLRs and unlike TLRs, which are found either on the cell surface or endosomes RLRs are found in the cytoplasm where cellular RNA is also present (Takeuchi & Akira 2009). The two main RNA helicases are RIG-I (retinoic acid inducible protein I) and MDA5 (melanoma differentiation associated gene 5). It has been shown that RIG-I and MDA5 recognise different viruses and different viral RNAs (Kato H et al. 2006;Loo et al. 2008) (Fig. 1). RIG-I recognizes single-stranded RNA (ssRNA) containing a terminal 5 -triphosphate (ppp)(Pichlmair A et al. 2007), as well as linear dsRNA no longer than 23 nucleotides(Kato et al. 2008). MDA5 recognises long strands of dsRNA but the mechanism by which this occurs is less clear (Kato, Takeuchi, Mikamo-Satoh, Hirai, Kawai, Matsushita, Hiiragi, Dermody, Fujita, & Akira 2008). The nucleotide-binding domain, leucine rich containing (NLR) protein family is a recent addition to the members of innate immunity effector molecules. NLRs play key roles in the cytoplasmic recognition of whole bacteria or their products. NLR proteins comprise a diverse protein family (over 20 in humans), indicating that NLRs have evolved to acquire specificity to various pathogenic microorganisms, thereby controlling host-pathogen interactions.
The aim of this meeting is to provide an overview of these three families of receptors and provide the most recent advances in the area of innate immune pattern recognition
Meeting chairs: : Dr Martha Triantafilou/Professor Kathy Triantafilou, Cardiff University School of Medicine, UK
This event has CPD accreditation and will have a troubleshooting panel session.
On registration you will be able to submit your questions to the panel that will be asked by the chair on the day of the event
8:45 – 9:15 Registration
9:15 – 9:30 Introduction by the Chairs: Dr Martha Triantafilou/Professor Kathy Triantafilou,Cardiff University School of Medicine, UK
9:30 – 10:00 NLR activation - what we do and don't know
Dr Tom Monie, University of Cambridge, UK
This talk will focus on the mechanisms of NLR activation, particularly in the NLRC subfamily. It will introduce our current understanding of how these receptors are activated; how they are regulated; and how they signal within a cell. Recent advances in the areas of ligand recognition and protein:protein interactions will be introduced
10:00– 10:30 Talk to be confirmed
Professor Dirk Werling, Royal Veterinary College¸UK
10:30 – 11:00 Intracellular DNA recognition by the innate immune system
Professor Veit Hornung, Universitätsklinikum Bonn¸Germany
A central function of our innate immune system is to sense microbial pathogens by the presence of their nucleic acid genomes or their transcriptional or replicative activity. In mammals, a receptor-based system is mainly responsible for the detection of these “non-self” nucleic acids. Tremendous progress has been made in the past years to identify host constituents that are required for this intricate task. With regard to the sensing of RNA genome based pathogens by our innate immune system, a picture is emerging that includes certain families of the toll-like receptor family and the RIG-I like helicases. At the same time, intracellular DNA can also trigger potent innate immune responses, yet the players in this field are less clear. In this talk an update is given on our latest progress on intracellular DNA sensing by the innate immune system.
11:00– 11:25 Mid-morning break, Poster Viewing and Trade Show
11:25 – 11:55 Talk to be confirmed
Dr Nicholas Gay, University of Cambridge, UK
11:55 – 12:25 Understanding innate immunity to rhinovirus infection in asthma
Dr Michael Edwards, National Heart Lung Institute, London, UK
Asthma exacerbations are frequently caused by rhinovirus infection. Asthmatic individuals suffer exaggerated inflammatory responses and deficient innate anti-viral responses. Both harmful, pro-inflammatory responses and beneficial anti--viral reponses are initiated by infection of the bronchial epithelium, naturally infected by rhinovirus in vivo. Understanding the signalling pathways involved in rhinovirus infection that evoke both pro-inflammatory cytokines and beneficial type I and type III intefreons may identify novel therapeutic targets that can alleviate inflammation or boost natural interferon production. This presentation will discuss the role of RLH and TLR signalling in inflammation and host defense in response to rhinovirus infection in asthma.
12:25 –13:20 Lunch, Poster Viewing