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  August 11, 2022
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Bio-Kerosene AtJ(r2)(r3)(r4)

Sourcing Agave Cropping for Fibre
PoCo (Tri-cities area) BC
Toll free: +011-604-941-9022 (help line)

Phone: 16049458408
Fax: +011-604-941-9022 (FAX line)
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Bio-Kerosene AtJ.  Biokerosene produced from farmable agave cropping in semi-arid climes like Mexico and sub-Saharan Africa (here part of the movement to help keep dessertification in check). The rxn. scheme is given below and is aimed at controlled volume-mixed rxn. timing via a theoretical die-fitted tortioned cavity mixer in process automation.

The developed PNA-auxin driven precision cropped agave sap and fibre, cane juice or bagasse fibre stream is from over-production (factory volume and as side-streamed from energy application and for automative "gasohol") with further conversion/refining to biokerosene for "green" aviation applications.



Rxn. Mechanism (steps 1 -->10), or formula: as moderated by our Virtual Assistant, D. A. Flores of Skye Blue Publications, Port Coquitlam, B. C. Canada V3B 1G3.*




(1)   CH3CH2OH  ------->    CH3-COOH 



(2)  CH3-COOH  --------->   [CH2=C(O2)2-]Na2   +    H2(g) 


      i) benzene wash with diethylether

      ii) NaH oil suspension wash in diethylether 



(3)  [CH2=C(O2)2-]Na2 -------->  CH2=C(OH)2     +      2OH(-)



                                           3 NaH 

(4)*  2   H2C=C(OH)(OH)  ------------------>  1 (-)HC=C(O)(O)(2-)    +    3H2




      +     1   H2C=C(Cl)(OH) 


      *Process automation: 1/2 portion in first batch / 1/4 with held (cummulated repeat =X2) /

       1/4  unreacted (with held) 

       i) benzene washed with diethylether for prep

      ii) NaH oil suspension washed in diethylether for prep         

     iii) this is critically   

    iv) likely over several minutes and up to what vol. is open to question


                                                                         3 H2O 

(5)  1  H2C=C(OH)(OH)  +  1 (-)HC=C(O)(O)2-  ------------->  CH3-C(OH)(OH)-CH=C(OH)(OH)

                                                                        3 HCl (aq)


                                                                5 NaH

(6)  2 CH3-C(OH)(OH)-CH=C(OH)(OH)  ---------------->  1 (-)CH2-C(O)(-)(O)(-)-CH=C(O)(O)2-


                                                        Process automation:* (see (4), above) 


(7)  1 (-)CH2-C(O)(-)(O)(-)-CH=C(O)(O)2-  +  1 CH3-C(OH)(OH)-CH=C(OH)(OH)  ------------>





                                                                                                                  4 H2O 

(9)  CH3-C(OH)(OH)-CH2-C(OH)(OH)-CH2-C(O)(-)(O)(-)-CH-C(O)(-)(O)(-)   ----------->





                                                                                                         Industrial processing

                                                                                                         (in combination with    



10)   CH3-C(OH)(OH)-CH2-C(OH)(OH)-CH2-C(OH)(OH)-CH2-C(OH)(OH) ---------------->

                                                                                                        i) distillation

                                                                                                      ii) caustic treatment

                                                                                                    iii)  hydrotreating                                                                                                        

                                                                                                   iv) hydrocracking 



                                                       6 H2(g)/Pd                

(11) CH=-C-CH2-C=-C-C=-CH2-C(OH)2 ---> CH3-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH2-C(OH)2




                                                                2 H2(g)/Pd

(12) CH3-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH2-C(OH)2 ---> CH3-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH3





(13) CH3-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH2-C(OH)2----> CH3-(CH2)n=5-C=-CH  +  2 H2O

                                                         i) caustic treatment

                                                           (H+-catalyzed elim.) 

                                                       ii) HCl (aq)


                                                      i) 2 H2 / Pt 

(14) CH3-(CH2)n=5-C=-CH --------------------------------------->  CH3-(CH2)n=6-CH3




The Genus Project: spp.-specific for specialization of plant parts: leaves aerial parts vs. roots.

The waxes in grasses or legume model plants crops are fatty acid, long-chain such as C-18, C-26 derivatives like the hydroxyacdis, diacids, saturated or modified chains as fatty acids or fatty aloohols. A) In the roots (NB: vs aeiral parts like the leaves, flowering parts or stems) suberins are wax-like substances referred to occurring as intracellular membranous lamellae. B) In the cuticular areas of leaves on the other hand, the studies cover modeling plants for their abiotic stress responsiveness with stress mechanisms with deposition of non-stomatal, metabolic water conservation wax cuticular barriered transpiration; e. g. s. of abiotic stressors include drought, cold and heat resistance.  It is feasible to think that activation with TF or TFE factors on genes that result in as much as 40% or more augmentation of a cuticular wax deposition can still neverthelsss lead to increaseed physiological responsiveness and water conservation thus for purposes of raising the plant, e. g. seagrasses / fisheries farming, it is desisred to grow and downstream process with harvesting the waxy long-chain product to eventually reduce them chemically and crack catalytically the raw material to C-8 alkanes evenly to what is referred to as bio-kerosene AtJr3 utilizable for the avionics or flight industry.

Due to the HQ condition of the fibre source of certain crops there have bee (3) posited for use in plantation form being with their advantages/disadvantages: a) agave fibre depending on their traditional arid locatios, e. g. Mexico and tequila plantations, the need for intensive cost production but the more established position with installations already pre-existing in places, R&D development required to jumpstart their growth cycle from 7-8 yrs to just 1 yr to make them economically feasible through XL growth strategies using photosyntheses mechanisms; b) artichoke as a vegetable product has also been posited but present problems in downstream processing with higher protein fractions present for extraction; c) seagrasses which is our pick which can involve ball fields or undergroud vertical farming, submerged also with XL grow mechanisms in R&D using photosyntheses. We have had rumours on the wire of offers of estimates in capital investment initially of about USD$100M towards this type of enterprise for investor information. Send in your feedback and any suggestions.

It was mentioned to us that the time when seagrass shifts in feedstock to agave, the push for financial feasibility for the so-called XL grow varieties with R&D plans will happen at that time using perhaps (cf. Global Services Edition, this website) photosynthetic optimization related mechanisms in plant cropping. 

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------  * (c) D. A. Flores. 2003-2050. SKYE BLUE INTERNET. Port Coquitlam. B. C. Canada V3B 1G3. (D. A. Flores is solely the owner of the said invention ideas.)   

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