The schema of organosomal analyses to breakdown bodily sytems or functions with intent to study any possible mind-body axis relationships and use any approaches for major drug discovery was proposed above in the preceding has been supported by other studies outlined in Wikipedia under the term “Nutrigenomics”. Genetic groupings underlying the various organosomes are: 1) respiratory/circulatory metabolism, vascular flow and tissue development, and including cardiovascular development and health, 2) gastro-enteric system and dietary anti-oxidants/ detoxification, bone structure regulation and disease with the inflammatory response and glucose balance (diabetesT2). A third organosome, the skins and body’s outer envelop plays the role with genetics of VitD activation in liver and kidneys from de novo synthesis in the skin (or from dietary intake) and receptors (or VDRs) in various metabolic networks, being one example. (The latter is not included in the outline of Wikipedia.)
The use of an expanded library of metabolomics therapeutics such as postulating that the depleted low molecular weight [LMW]-scale proteome that is systemic or ex situ, in vivo can be sequenced ‘tagged’ as has already been used to allow entry intracellularly of such proteins, is an approach that we are being made aware of. Proteomics could grow by leaps and bounds in the coming decade, along with the discovery of the ‘magic bullets’ of drug discovery.
Neurobiology, Endocrinology and Immunomodulation Function.
A cell systems approach with putative ligand-receptor binding structural-functional relationships, signaling and ion channel transduction will be used in mind-body axis studies (e. g. within the CNS and immunocompetent cell systems in the gut) in the fields of neurobiology & endocrinology and neurocrine function.
In biopharmacogeneic therapeutic activation of the cellular immune system there are neurotransmitters, neuropeptides and neurohormones that may be used to activate cytotoxicity, phagocytosis and macrophage engulfment of cancer cells. For e. g., pituitary neurotransmitters and neuropeptides are important immunomodulators; cytokines serve as feed-back signals; the rapidly amplifiable, polyspecific reaction mediates natural immune mechanism (resulting in profoundly elevated levels of natural Abs and liver-derived proteins). In theory, neurohormonal systemic proteomic factors needs to be speculated that activate the NK cells + plasma complement proteins from hepatocytes. A first immuno response is with cytotoxicity of the complement cascade of plasma proteins from hepatocytes with opsonization (coating of pathogens) resulting in cytolysis. Optimization of inflammation occurs with cytokine or neurhormones and TNF, HMGB1, IL-1 with the neural circuit: CNS->vagus->spleen->acetylcholine->:CHRNA7-:cytokine release. Phagocytotic response is with: neutrophils ->leukocytes->lymphocytes or phagocytes. Macrophagic response is with: monocytes->macrophage. Therapeutics: Although at an early stage, at the Children’s Hospital Boston and Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, use of NK cells with receptors NKG2D fused with Fc of EBV Abs of lymphoma cells had some effect on reducing tumour growth.
The humeral response system we are working with is with: 1) cytotoxic T cell recruited by helper T cells (initiates T and B cells) kills infected body cells by pathogens or invaders (parasitic, bacterial and viral), 2) natural killer (NK) cells recognizes and kills cells infected by a broad range of invaders, 3) killer (K) cells also kills infected cells coated with antibodies cross-reacted with their antigenic determinants, 4) biopharmacogeneic drugs that effect cell signaling activating cellular immunity, 5) cytotoxic complement-like cell destruction by humeral cellular factors, 6) cancer (melanoma) is acted on by circulatory leukocyte and endothelial cells (as a model), and 7) regulatory homeostatic factors that affect phagocytosis such as calreticulin. What factors for enhancement and/or optimization are possible together with bio-pharma in biotech is open for question with T, B, NK and K cells, complement and phagocytosis all involved in the total immunogeneic response.
A hypothetical model in sheep immunogeneic cell lines is as follows: 1) a humeral haemocytotic germinal cell line primed with hormonal cell blockers to growing cancer cells; an e. g. could be an anti-CD47 signaling agent or hormone encouraging an effective macrophagic outcome, 2) a systemic CNS-sourced neurhormonal activation of complement cytoxicity and phagocytosis of cancer cells. An e. g. in the literature is with acetylcholine and other anti-tumour cytotoxic T-cell immune response mechanisms.
There is a new avenue at John Hopkins U. in their medical school investigating the "shielding mechanism" of immune cells from cancer cells allowing them to evade the immune system. Drugs called anti-PD-1 blockers to molecules PD-1 on immune cells and anti-PD-L1 against ligand 1 on the cancer cell have been used successfully but unfortunately with relapse.
We cannot suggest any specific "factor(s)" here at play but it is intriguing to us to study further the interactions between dietary components including protein level or intake with a daily regimen of balanced complex carbohydrates, neurhormonal factors related to mood and the immune system, a subject's genetics or background regarding their cancer(s), and ways to further boost the immune response in sustained fashion, through use of pharma. Whether this leads to better, more effective treatment in terms of sustained outcomes remains to be seen.
Another approach recently used outside conventional therapies (of surgery, radiation and chemotherapy) is viruses, a form of oncolytic (lysis of the tumuor) therapy which acts via live viruses (viz. non-virulent) that tag tumours they attack and which also launch an immune response against the cancer. E. g. s. of virus models used are the common cold virus and a S. American tropical fly virus. These have been used against melanoma lesions in skin and lymph nodes and can also result in remission but a cure is still a ways further.
Mind-Body Psycho-actives & Aging.
A model simulating in vivo conditions would be to adopt, for example, a Sprague-Dawley rat model, undergo treatment on animals, for example, prolonged streneous exercise regimens, biopsy neurocrine CNS centres, conduct mRNA assays and express protein products with isolation and characterization with proteomics, conduct micro-array 125-I ligand-receptor cell studies using displacement of non-labeled putative agents, study cell signaling and nuclear protein activation and interaction with promoters of genes and characterize further their gene products.
Approaches include future possibilities with mind-body psychoactives with putative roles of neurocrine factors in catecholamine and folate metabolism and possible roles in increased metabolic rate and health and longevity factors. The state-of-the-art in anti-aging research at this time involves approaches such as the gene products of SIRT 1-7 which control energy metabolism and cell survival which interacts nutritionals such as resveratrol in wine and with whom GlaxoSmithKline at the time of release of this study was pursuing research on efficacy trials (stage II) on more effective drug agents compared with resveratrol for diabetesT2 and inflammatory disease although other diseases such as aging with cancer and heart disease are also involved (see: investigations in the literature at the Harvard Medical School, conjointly with the UNSW Medical School, Sydney), bio-pharmaceutical mood-altering functional, cognitive enhancing and kinesiological therapeutics with possible developmental and geriatric applications, including links between exercise therapy and the onset of dementia and neurocrine de-conditioning and anti-addiction therapies.
It is enticing to thinks that there are now direct linkages metabolically between aging/degenerative disease states and metabolism as with the gene products mentioned above and that, as we have espoused here, use of nutritionals can be a further avenue to discover or develop drugs that can enhance longevity and/or slow aging and its disease processes.
Immuno-therapeutics in Agriculture and Health.
Immunotherapeutics is a growing area of interest in health and agriculture. There are amongst the arsenal of techniques: 1) immunomodulation (see below), 2) immunosuppression (e. g. tissue transplantation) with drugs, 3) immunocontrol such as with protozoa in the gut rumen and 4) immunoresponsive therapy such as Igs used against the insiduous effects of the mutated SOD1 protein on other proteins and their accumulation in the neurological system (e. g. brain and spinal cord and peripheral nerves) and eventual paralysis and death in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS).