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An African-Sino Cooperation
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In the growing projected region in Far Eastern Russia we are planning a feed and bioconversion company for avian species (chicken feed, chicken litter, vermi-cultured compost), a lucrative meat producing spp. for the projected Russian republics food drive for hi-quality protein sources for its expanding populace in the region.
The following methods will be used, by example, for feeding and poultry production in African countries like Mozambique:
1)Wheat, sorghum straw, corn stover, miscanthus and switchgrass as biomass feedstock or stripping of lignan biomass with liquid ionic deconstruction using recyclable solvents that are to be proven feed-grade, reduction with enzyme to oligomers, trimers, dimers and finally monomeric sugars (e. g. glucose) and their reconversion or to convert starch or amylose polymer or simpler pulverization and enzymatic breakdown to glucose syrup then into feed pellets suitable for avian feeding and food applications.
2)Poultry by-product meal is one of the most important sources of animal protein used to feed domestic animals, along with meat and bone meal, blood meal, feather meal and fish meal. It is made by combiining the by-products coming from poultry slaughterhouses or poultry processing plants. It is defined as poultry by-product meal as the ground, rendered, cleaned parts of the carcass of slaughtered poultry such as the necks, heads, feet, undeveloped eggs, gizzards and intestines (provided their content are removed), exclusive of feathers (except in such amounts as might occur unavoidably with good processing practices). Whole poultry carcass meal can be also be obtained from culled laying hens (spent hen meal), notably in areas where there is no market for culled hens.
3)Recycled, processed chicken manure and litter have been used as the waste contains large amounts of protein, fibre, and minerals and has been deliberately mixed into animal feed for these nutrients; it is best used as processed locally where produced because the bulk and weight of the products makes shipment uneconomical. Normally, this animal waste is used by small farmers and owners of beef and dairy herds as a winter supplement for cows and weaned calves in developed countries and can be applied in African countries and the Russian Far East eventually.
The company projected is centrally located nr. the Eastern coast and should require both shipping by land, train, aerotransport and sea using refrigeration technologies. Company operations will incorporate considerations of: 1) square meter area per head, 2) ventilation, 3) ambient indoor environmental control, 4) animal handling procedures by handlers, 5) health and quarrantine protocols, 6) feeding and watering, 7) slaughtering, packaging & storage protocols and facility capacity or capabilities and features and 8) organization of labour, management, financing, marketing and other higher administration.
A subsidiary in Lusaka, Zambia, originally from Beijing, China and hopefully soon also in the Russian Far East will be producing this vital protein source commodity towards 2040 as all industrial, developing and less developed countries from fibre resources primarily and other recyclables. The market appears to be export driven in addition to one of domestic source such as the expatriate China community (2 million) in the African continent. At the moment domestically produced protein from these sources are not apparently exported back to China, but restructuring and government planning will change this in future with fiscal renegotiation, augmenting domestic markets and supplies in Africa. Recently, urea-ammoniation has been discussed regards sustainability issues with respect to inputs. The source of nitrogen for the ammoniation process will either come from manure from mixed farming or shipped chicken manure and litter (above). This alll makes for one of integrated farming practices in action.
At the ZAMBEZI-CHINA CONSORTIUM (Mozambique) we are consulting on the trade of soybean as an economical method of ammoniation (chemical, microbiological) as a unique opportunity for this crop; the launching point in Africa of lower than average biomass yields makes stover byproducts as ligno-cellulosic biomass as a resource crop management issue an apt field application using CO-OP farming operations (big business) or even small-med. farming operational practices together with improving through inputs and practices management cash crops yield improvements of cassava, beans, vegetables (also bananas, corn, tobacco and sweet potato) to improve harvest outputs, nutrition, income and capital asset holdings of farmers in countries in the African continent.
FIG. 1. FLOW DIAGRAM OF KAZAKHSTAN ENTERPRISE INITIATIVE IN ENERGY FROM CROPS AND BYPRODUCTS: (see: SOYUS, GENUS, NOVO LUX, and OHKOTSK CONVERT FEED PRODUCERS)
IONIC LIQUID DECONSTRUCTIVE FRACTIONATION (ILDF)
-> 1)CONVERT STARCH PRODUCTION FOR AVIAN FEEDS
-> 2)FERMENTATION TO ISOPENTENOL
-> 3)LIGNIN-->1)LIGNASE, 2)WSC, 3)APP, 4)ADDITIVES--->ANAERO-LOGIX TECHNOLOGY® FERMENTATION TO ISOBUTANOL _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
SKYEVIEW: The 'RHTM' may soon take shape with a logistical station in Ohkotsk, Russia where rail transport (in future Mag-Lev technology will be considered) will offer infrastructure to depot fibre resource recovery (e. g. corn stover) using two industrial class technologies now even considered economically sustainable called ionic fluid pre-treatment to isolate the saccharolytic fractions followed by convert starch production scale-up technology transfer to be developed from the U.S.A. using immobilized enzyme technology to be used here for avian production (a more sustainable meat source) using animal by-product meals and to be processed and flash frozen and containerized shipped overseas to ports in markets such as in China, Korea, Mongolia, Japan, R.O.C., H.K. and Australia/N.Z., to name but a few of such a type of operation. Transport (refrigerated) overland will be by containerized truck and/or rail in markets such as China, Japan and Australia. Further to this is the energy issue of producing isobutanol (and even higher-grade, energy dense isopentenol in the future) although isoclimactic conditions may have the dictate to only seasonally production - unlike in areas such as sub-tropical Japan, Queensland and New Mexico). Russia may choose to produce products from their recoverable fibre-based resources primarily in Central Asia where isoclimactic conditions exist and then depot them from there. Wheat straw as a feedstock has to be further investigated. Potential markets for export of these alternative bioenergy sources are China, the Koreas, Mongolia, Japan and Australia/New Zealand.
There is growing evidence that CH4 (natural gas) from fibre feedstock from co-culture may become feasible in the near future. Albeit as a by-product of bagasse feedstock processing for feed, food and alcohol fuels (e. g. isobutanol in future) in Kenya to be distributed by pipeline. The same can be true for Zambia with soy feedstock from stover for soya bean production.
An SBO Company
Last update of this entry: March 19, 2019