Vertical Farming with Hydroponics-cum-Fish Farming and the Future.
Vertical farming is now believed to be transposable with current plans for submerged or aquatic farming of marine grasses in the conventionalized form that 'SkyeBlue' has launched upon in the last few years.
It presents feature advantages of being: 1) precisioned farmed or regulatable, 2) cost-cutted in terms of inputs, 3) much more efficiency in terms of space organization and as a working are/complex with 4) components and materials that are easily manufactured.
It is known that vertical farming is or will be increasingly employed in more densified urban settings and whether it be in use for biopharming, feedmaking or "green" bioenergy generation, majorly, and for outdoor (e. g. self-sustainable vegetable-cum-fish farming) or intensive indoor (e. g. the London U.K. Underground has been convertable to grow urban sourced salad greens underneath) use it will be used compared to more conventionalized forms of growing with horticultural and vegetable crops for animal feed (e. g. legume and grass forage farming) and human food production.
Here is the promo released by the FAO-UN, Rome Italy, (click): (9) Post | Feed | LinkedIn.
The Story of Forage Horticultural Farming and the Dairy Industry.
To highlight dairy it is believed, that the horticultural trends with population growth as it mushrooms, possibly still true in future for Canada, will hasten the franchising of outlets for horticultural farming of new fodders or more common forage (above or below water level, in hydroponical terms) and will start to blot the landscape in a densified peri-urban and even in rural areas, like a 'major dairy whole corporation' with its outlet sourcing to answer to the growing societal demands for milk food products, and additionally, backyard and horticultural farming of 'fruit-n-veg' commodities running parallel in infrastructural facilities in this area of farming industry.
It is predicted that food concerns served by food banks will be fully capacitied to answer to them depending on the attendant labour costs, utilities and other energy-intensive inputs for farming. These can be funded through both federal-provincial granting and donations as a public trust. Their operations will be expected to answer to demands in innovation as 'greener' alternatives to technology that is increasingly becoming non-viable in their related industries, e. g. vermiculture to help sustain and enhance soil fertility in horticulture.
Socio-Economic Trends: what progress?
Although we could be moving further "left" in terms of progressive socialism nevertheless we choose to improve efficiency, sustainability and regional food security or assurance, and given the population pressures still present to this day, including our immigration patterns; I hope we move to better cooperativity that is evident of technological savy, practice of the free enterprising values and economic success, with efficiency as an ultimate goal. We can conquer with efficiency and healthier growth.
Fields of interests we would like to be a part of as an informational enterprise are:
- Weed Science - phenolic extractives from plant-bearing sources and gasification (CH4) from fibre like wood pulp, alkaloids and pollination in weed science
- Agricultural Consulting - plse. write in; FYI available for you (14 research folios and counting)
- Aquatic Ecology - water hyacinthe, duckweed, Cryptocoryne (Araceae), marine grass spp.
- Zoology - salt water spp. of fish with brackish fishpond culture and aquamarine resources
- Botany - FYI available for you (e.g. seco-steroidal based pharma)
- Biosaline Agriculture - land-based hydroponics (submerged) with seawater or biosaline; these projects like reported salmon hatchery and farming off the tropical salt water seas off Arabia can also be further instituted in semi-arid countries in Arabia and C. Asia.
- International Development Research - livestock feeding systems (tropical ensilage or processing), co-ops in industry
The Genus Seagrass Project for the Future of Negros Island, the Philippines.
For more on our work on this topic click (or paste) this link: https://firstname.lastname@example.org/genus. Further to research on marine grasses out at sea or in the mainland (inland areas) is the growth possibility of biosaline agriculture in marginalized lands requiring further development in rural and semi-rural areas which deserves attention in terms of balancing nutrition with growing population density and settlements with dairy farming using HQ fodders with hi-producing cows that are adapted to semi-arid areas and weather including farm management needs. E. g. s. we are approaching are the United Arab Emirates and Afghanistan in West and Central Asian republics. Solar energy use will become critical, e. g. for heating/cooling and electrical/mechanical operations of the horticultural barn or shop areas.
The seagrasses are perceived to be hardier and thus more sustainable than algae. The hydroponics tanks is a "swing-away" holding reef configuration, with transparent netting, flocculated with soluble, organic N-P-K from composted marine harvested seaweed and is recirculatable in a closed system and cleaned between harvest. Harvesting of the seagrasses and processing of biomaterials (e.g. fine biochemicals like enzymes and v. secondary alkaloids) and separation of feed residues as high quality (HQ) feedstock for dairy goats and cattle is downstream.
Plant-derived suberins as starting material in cut rhizomes and off-shoots in seagrasses consist of polyaliphatics (bionol) residing in the cell membrane and cell wall while the polyaromatics reside in the cell wall alone where the tissues are ruptured and homogenized in a mouton grinder press and the homogenate under high pressure and temperature with glycerol pressure filtered in a glass-sintered funnel thick to several inches and reinforced to the perimeter; the solvent phase is separated out in olefin and aliphatic and aromatic fractions separated by distillation and reduced with reducing agent Bu3SnH; the alphatics are then cracked either: 1) thermally without catalyst under high temperature/pressure or 2) at lower temperature/pressure with catalyst into smaller molecules with zeolites or alumino-silicates to produced kerosene - a mixture of C6-C16 molecules.
The other more significant industrial approach is to effectively polymerize subunits of ethanol molecules originally to precise length octanes (C-8) as bio-kerosene stopped time for the polymerization chain reaction over time within seconds in so-called torsion rotating mixing wells repetitively with collection of the resulting solvent product for avionics application. Indeed fibre-bearing crops will be milled and fermented to ethanol preliminarily and then polymerized by that process including use of bagasse, wood pulp, marine seagrass, and agave.
Goat Dairy Feeding
Dairy feeding requires high quality forages such as from seagrasses which have been fed from gathered areas in coastal beaches in the southern Indian subcontinent for generations. Pelleted concentrate can be fed in addition to ad lib feeding of forage composed of binder, copra meal:ground yellow corn (30:70), rice bran, crushed oyster shell and salt. It is open to conjecture at this point if SSF pre-treatments would serve the purpose of dried, ground seagrass residues linto pelleted feeds from seagrassponics culture.
Dairy in the Philippines includes feeding harvested Napier grass as valuable long fibres of good quality and calls for further investigation of utilization of eco-friendly seagrasses in self-fertilizing fish pond culture in unimproved land and near coastal areas where land availability is not prohibitive. It should be noted also that spp. like duckweed and other Lilly can be used in estuarine settings for regenerating or refreshing brackish waters a valuable tool in environmental remediation.
The XL Grow Variety
This XL-GMO variety presented here are a further opportunity for the scale up of economics to grow pharma as a derivative byproduct in seagrass farming in addition to the mainstay of bioethanol including higher density alcohols of greater energy yield such as isobutanol and isopentenol from fermentation of animal feedstock. Configuring to intensify with Aquaria-bloc (R) use and with alkaloids to biocontain the XL varieties from plant pollination is up for grabs as to how to grow these HQ fodders whether intensively as referred to or via other scenarios with land use improvements for these productive ends (i. e. pharma and energy feedstock) with environmental protection to regulate the industry.
Plant Physiology and Genetic Breeding Strategies:
The ff. strategies will be used to develop the desired varieties that are viable for field production in seagrassponics:
1. Callus development and protoplast fusion approaches to develop the first hybrid varieties vis-a-vis: a) leaf vs. root area growth, this is the initial observation with hybrid variety for either leafiness or root mass as part of total C-sink capacity and fodder production growth rate; b) lignin quality vs. rate of growth, and; c) pest resistance vs. other qualities-albeit, in a biocontained and filtered environment.
2. X-ray (low-level ONLY) treatment to mutate and select out (i. e. breed) improved traits for leaf area, root area, lignification of crude fibre, growth rate (and other possible selectable traits) with back-crossing to stabilize the genetic background of new plant varieties.
3. Gene Editing to form GMOs which are biocontained in a biosafe laboratory or pilot plant to introduce specific genes by insertion or replacement, e. g. bio-oil production, pharma production and various experimental feed qualities such as low-lignin, hi-WSC, lo-protease and hi-C-sink capacity with extensive backcrossing to stabilize the new genetic bred varieties.
4. Bio-containment of all GMO varieties using our Synthroid-Guard (R) technology using secondary plant alkaloids preventing pollination in biosafe facilities which are filtration and furnace serviced to detroy all bioactive material from pilot plant.
5. Tufts and density are a major factor including vertical and horizontal growth in the growth medium as a matrix together with energy per sq. m. for lighting energy in photons in assessing the overall growth patterns of cultured seagrass growth.
Aquatic Plant Fodders and Dairy Production.
Here is a SAMPLE of a description on deriving undifferentiated, proliferative cell calli, their transformation to protoplasts, their fusion based on paired up varieties to produce a desired cell type (upon inspection later), a one-step regeneration via somatic embryogenesis from diploid cells to whole plantlets under the right conditions, yet to be determined, then to be grown in agar-agar slant tubes under brine and with plant food added and also on agar-agar plates again under brine and under microscopic examination to manipulate cells, accordingly.
The Steps to Manipulate Cell for Regeneration are: (for review see: A. Feher. 2019. Callus, dedifferentiation, totipotency, somatic embryogenesis: what these terms mean in the era of molecular plant biology? Front Plant Sci 10: 536-552)
1. Make the explant from marine seagrass by harvesting one shoot of a plant from the sandy-loam seafloor and retransplant in the same soil type in a brine-filled bucket for 1-2 days before explant formation and storage in a near-shore pilot research lab; after storage cut an explant of stem tissue from that area of the plant and grow in an agar slant with plant food auxin and cytokinin (in equal ratios) to induce cell profileration for "calli" growth of undifferentiated cell mass in a test tube.
2. Transplant proliferating "calli" cells in agar-agar slants with brine and plant food over a few transfers and remove finally to agar-agar plates. Repeat for 1 and 2, of 2 varieties of marine seagrass species, that have varying characteristics as to root mass or leafiness/leaf area. Remember, store calli cells for further plant molecular biological study according to protocoled parameters before taking them out of storage for disposing.
3. Proceed with the protoplasmic fusion protocol on an agar-agar plate, removing the cell wall with zymogen treatment, and microscopically set the cells attempting to fuse them together with their plasma membrane on contact amongst these so-called "stem cells" of 2 different species and incubate further under microscopic examination to confirm the formation of cell fusants and then "coax" further to new undifferentiated, proliferated calli or cells (see: I. Takebe, G. Labib and G. Merchers. 1971. Regeneration of whole plants from isolated mesophyll protoplasts of tobacco. Nuturwissenschaften 58: 318-320.)
4. In one "single step" (see: D. Back-Husemann and J. Reinert. 1970. Embryobuilding durch isolierte Einzelzellen aus Gervebekulturen von Dauaus carota. Protoplasma 70: 49-60; F. C. Steward, P. V. Aminirato and M. O. Mapes. 1970. Growth and development of totipotent cells. Ann. Bot. 34: 761-787) regenerate the plantlets for regrowth using an experimentally definable protocol referred to as the phenomena of somatic embryogenesis. It is proposed eventually that at pilot-scale a so-called Occu-well (R) of agar-agar with a anchored membrane be used to raise them to fully grown plants with the plant roots in free-hold.
Study Trials with Aquatic Water Hyacinth: the following issues apparent with recent scientific studies.
1) Ensilage is required for feeding in response to proper: handling (mechanized such as harvesting and chopping); processing; storage, and preservation; and required feeding availability year round.
2) Mixture with grass silage at first is required although pure aquatic plant silage is palatable also after adaptation; this likely has to do with protein status, intake and protein rumen digestion.
3) Heavy soil contamination is a significant problem unless extensive washing of aquatic plants is carried out.
4) Screw pressing to reduce H2O before ensilage is required and run-off collected from silos is also required for palatability or acceptance. ~50% removal of water.
5) Additives as preservatives to improve quality of silage, viz. intake & palatability in part due to acidity and quality of preservation are, e. g. citrus pulp, cracked yellow corn or grain, sugarcane molasses and organic acids at 2-4% rate for palatability or acceptance; propionic/acetic acids (8:2) and formic acid are good preservatives. This relates directly to preservation of adequate protein content.
6) Species dependency (e. g. native dairy cows, steers, sheep) in palatability varies.
7) Grasses are not inferior or lower in digestibility necessarily; the opposite can in fact be true; paddy straw is compatible with feeding water hyacinthe.
8) Paddy straw and water hyacinthe silage supplemented for N (e. g. legumes, ground nut cake, fishmeal, rice bran, copra meal and corn meal) is a viable feed source for meat & dairy where feed resources are otherwise scarce; feed is high in carbohydrates.
9) Hyacinthe plants float while other aquatics are submerged. % CF content suggests plants are highly digestible.
10) Paddy straw + aquatic plants with sugarcane feeding regimes should be further investigated as a promising feed for dairy cows.
It is suggested that yeast bagasse with prebiotic MCP supplementation for protein peptides and amino acids and better supply of digestible carbohydrates (CHO) supplied from more digestible crude fibre (CF) from aquatic fodders for increasing ruminal digestion and bulk intake on feed be studied further for improvement in feed quality with sugarcane feeding.
11) Protein Digestion/Intake of DM or OM is dependent on: a) N supplementation with legumes, grains and byproduct feeds, or combining with other feeds, b) silage quality, e. g. additives and methods, c) supply of good quality, long fibres for rumen digestion, d) low %CF for higher digestibility.
A Model for the Island of Vancouver, Canada: an aquaponics production factory.
Let's take an example as with the municipality and peri-urban area of Campbell River in the north of the island. Greener approaches which are 'build-it-your-own' affairs more or less with less contracting using rented land area in peri-urban zones close enough to coastal areas for piped-in marine water supplies and serviceable by the municipality with possible hybrid varieties with green pot aquaponic operational factories and near possibly bioethanol fermentation plant facilities as a major source outlet for more profitable or efficient hi-quality fodders as feedstock (due to very low lignin content) that have been further processed from hay cubes (pretreated by force-air drying) and previously grown in incubator parallel style hook up piping and heated via both direct element through furnace ducting and ambient thermostat control with LED lighting and fed with organics and electrolytes for plant food depending on the cost-effective analyses of productivity upon farm harvest and further downstream processed with SSF treatment to further facilitate product value. Note that there is minimal cost for transport of bulky and heavy substrate to sourced bioenergy plants. (See also: Youtube vlogging site called "The Outsider Woodsman" for examples or ideas.)
Manufacturing of feedstock for two purposes: 1) bioenergy feed inputs and 2) and animal feed processing for eventual packaging and import/export shipment which is deemed a tremendous growth outlet or area for this type of industrial activity with seagrass. It was mentioned to us that a "bioclean" facility environment is required where product is involved rather than direct handling procedures are used. In the case of this facility the ff. considerations are used: 1) air filtration, 2) water filtration and treatment, 3) strict amenities maintenance for extra cleanliness (e. g. floor maintenance & appliances and conveniences) and the pelleting, in the case of feeds, heat extrusion using molasses and vitamin-mineral mix, resulting in Browning reaction of the protein and its optimized availability in livestock in this case we have not a concentrate supplement but an analogical high-energy fibre feed with or without supplement amalgamated as such.
This implies in part a cottage industry which networks around both dairy plant facilities and growing bioethanol consumption with factories interspersed around in a country like Canada sans biopharma pretentions for a statutory "biosafe" facility for GMO varieties.
It is still unknown if natural predation happens with seagrass varieties that may potentially be vulnerable to similar to sea lice with fish in their confined habitats in incubators. Pesticides or herbicides might be used for both these purposes.
A Model for the British Columbia Interior Mainland: Genus Farms Milling & Foods Canada
It is a sluice enabled incubator pilot-plant for dairy milk fodder for year-round grass-fed animals and high-end Pharma together with a salmon run and hatchery - even with bred low-cholesterol egg producing layers and to be stocked eventually with hi-end producing dairy milk producing cows, both of which are deemed GMO-Free labelled marketed food products. The facility is dual-run for both dairy and salmon enhancement facilities with option to produce bred poultry layered eggs. Note that these animal products are designed of animal rights - conscious food consumers and foodies alike - milk (and milk food products, MFP), salmon caught humanely and low-cholesterol eggs from poultry.
Initial Guestimates for Botanical Plant Operations.
It is believed that two weigh-ins in the competition for cost-effectiveness are the ff. factors: 1) Tuft density per square decimeter, total tray number [on 14' (ft) total height per reinforced Nalgene(R) material] =(12) and 2) Chemical inputs (plant food formulations with N-P-K and pesticides) which are energy dense and costly, will determine the scale of production of the initial pilot plant. The next considerations are the parallel connected array of incubator vessels in no. (12 x 8) which will hopefully produce quarterly (/yr) based with some selected XL growth varieties to be used first of all as: 1) dairy fodders (maybe pelleted for better formulation, nutritive value and handling), 2) then if in future cellulose EtOH plants come into line it can be sold at a premium like bagasse to be not chemically treated but biologically or enzymatically processed prior to biofermentation and finally 3) nutraceutical and/or pharma applications in more expensive capitally invested enterprise with much greater added value but using GMO technology in pollen-free, bioscepted plants.
How big in area is big for a plant facility? Look around and you may find a dairy processing of food plant facility in kind, not so odd in a neighboring semi-rural setting or municipality - take a major agro-food area near the GVRD of Vancouver like Chilliwack - this might do like a Dairyland Foods(R) enfranchisement nearer the Vancouver area.
A shocking revelation: is there any more need for hay or all-year round ensilage of green herbage for fodders as a replacement. Is this true? Time may tell the story with us. Can I add, what about the spared resource land that is free? Fallowing in a system? Less fine chemicals expenditures and cost? More zoning problems ? - but of course we know the problems with that one: greenhouse gas emissions, immigration, open borders and overpopulation - the latter is a human right although not in legislated confines. I have a suggestion - veggie and fruit is our delight in our diet for better health so why not grow locally, and source as such!
Where's the marketing plan, you may ask? This is it.
Hydroponics: where are the nuts and bolts for the matter?
We will list in "parts and pieces" for your consideration here, so read on- and believe it or not there are suppliers alive and well including Hydrobuilders Inc.**, we heard about awhile ago headquartered in Chico, CA U.S.A. near Silicon Valley with a former acquaintance (unnamed) to our Principal in charge:
(1) Agar-agar Occuwells (R) - from SkyeBlue's author serving as anchors to rooting shoots in clump size of 40-50 stands which start as plantlets from undifferentiated calli cell culture after R&D development.
(2) Grow Trays & Stands - (built-in frame work) to "quick" charge (12-24 trays per incubator submerged chamber) the array stand filled to the top including addition of media and gases with LED lighting.
(3) Reservoirs and Tanks - Pool reservoirs with pumps for reserve or emergency and the tank incubator chambers submerged of trays all the way to the top.
(4) H2O Filtration and Treatment - Prep of salitre (saline) using filtered piped in marine water at the source pump and treatment at the source plant pump house for nutrients or growth media, pre-primed by staff, including dissolved guano (this has yet to be worked out in formula), buffers, plant food (growth factors), bio-pesticides, and gases.
(5) Water pumps / Airpumps - at source plant pump house to control parallel hooked up lines across chamber valved junctions [est. = 96 arrayed chambers or 12 x 4 x 2 (on either side across the divide)].
(6) Water heaters - at the pump house to incubate temperature similar to tropical climes (28-32 deg C).
(7) Fittings and tubings - to connect the networked reservoirs, priming pumps, incubator chambers and fail safe outvalves.
*All hydroponic operations are by classification capitally-intensive as opposed to open marine ponds by comparison.
**Hydrobuilder Inc., a well-known big box distributor of materials and equipment will be consulted later to see if developments warrant adaptation of the described listed materials of "parts and pieces" for use in submerged seagrassponic farming or culture. No doubt, much R&D is needed. Calling all botanists and agronomists, as we speak including postgrad students. We wish all well.
Seagrass Technology As We Know It: Intensive Temperate or Outdoors in Tropical Climes. Little has been published on so-called: Seagrass Technology, with its great potential to be a dairy fodder source both intensively as well as in less intensive seagrass-fish pond culture, the development of a biosafe lab complex for varieties accelerated for growth, so-called XL varieties, and those GM varieties with "plant pharming" in mind as with hormones (e. g. insulin, hGH, hGRH), food nutraceuticals, enzymes, using secondary alkaloids to check mitotic spindle fibre function in the pollen sac to arrest any pollination during growth, an incubation housing physical plant or building with attached "boiler" room facilities, the incubation designed chambers themselves with trayed rafts and fitted with our proprietary Occu-wells(R) to allow free growth and stable anchoring of tufts of grass from plantlets.
The environmental control features include: heating, ventilation, humidifier, LED lighting covering 15-30,000 sq. ft. together with an attached prep lab for more advanced calli experiments and cell plant extraction and plant-raising situated near peri-urban farms for purposes of transportation to market of produce or product with our designation in dairy as so-called "ag retailers".
The outlay of the pilot plant will consist of 15 test chambers in a 3 X 5 configuration with a 5 in a row arrangement connected in parallel per row with lines running into them from the back and coming out from the front to drainage or recycle back through the reconditioner and filtration system inputs required being: our so-called Synthroid Guard (R), molecular interventives like PNA-Carriered Technology for gene silencing, soluble minerals, gases, buffers, plant growth promoters (including auxins) including soluble N-P-K from bat guano. At the incubator base are motored mixing rotors. There are flow regulators at junction points to direct circulation of growth media with foiled reflectors to maximize light irradiation, with an overflow pressure valve (positive) and tray rafter as much as 10-12 trays clipped or locked into place after front loaded installation; the Occu-wells(R) are based on open wells plugged with growth media agar-agar on the rafts and are "bouyant" allowing free hold on all growing tuft plantlets throughout their cycle; the heating system consists of heated copper coils, one-way valves, insulated hosing, and seals. Monitors utilizing electrodes or probes at the return collection point of the network and the input or intake valve point or junction will measure parameters such as temperature, pH, gases (CO2/O2) with microfiltration. There might be the option to use semi-automated probes with its feedback control using a computerized control function in the system with flow regulator or effector valves to maintain equilibrium at optimum for seagrass growth throughout their growing cycle.
The need for monitoring operational functions of the equipment and regulation of flow lines will ensure proper and continuous function although deconstruction in case of emergency can be carried out per each incubator cell or chamber by locking the input valve(s) with equilibrated flow to have drainage outflow in effect and the rafted trays removed rapidly and transferred to submerged tray holders for interventive protocols.
Use of green energy sources such as hydro, windpower and solar power are all alternatives we seek after to invest and lower costs in the long run through our own or the electrical grid.
For pond culture enthusiasts there will be a need to allocate or convert available paddy rice land depending on population pressures and agricultural use into hi-tech tarped lined paddy cells but battened down for minimizing debris in case of inclement weather disasters and topped or lined in effect with sanded clay loam previously fertilized by vermiculture and/or chicken or pig litter (stably humic in nature) pre-planted for tufted plantlets using submerged aquaponics in a greenhouse and populated with fish culture (like milkfish, or salmon) and fed regularly with fish food by sparging onto the water surface. As it stands the paddies as they are called are only used with non-GMO varieties for dairy and meat plant fodders. These high quality feed products as fodders can serve idealy GMO hi-producing dairy cows or goats to support and at the same time maximize yield and with hi-bred meat livestock animals. Paddy straw and water hyacinth are also proferred to grow with hays derived from seagrasses.
This will be required for downstream processing of feed and energy feedstock used with PNA Technology to pre-treat or at others say postharvest treat the feedstock such as yeast bagasse, various yeast hays and stovers, solid-substrate fermentation (SSF) of fibrous crop residues (FCR), and in situ tank fermentation for bioalcohols as with yeast and bagasse feedstock and essential amino acid functional supplements with E. coli or yeast/fungal hosts for production. The field of micromilnery is at an infant stage being that particle size::surface area ratios with respect to the substrate/macromolecular unit parts (viz. organismal) in mind are to be engineered in the milling process with minimal energy inputs (energy is the limiting cost to bioenergy generation). We will be treating this subject with greater emphasis in Vol II of: "Biotechnology Research and Animal Feeding and Production," by D. A. Flores.
SKYEVIEW: For sugar-bearing plants crops including tree leaves harvested for the well-known product Stevia (R) are now the oncoming aquaria-bloc, hydroponically-grown seagrasses that have been boosted for: photosynthesis, water-soluble carbohydrates (WSC), auxins and other plant growth promoters in order to boost sugar synthesis and output. This would be perceived to be sustainable and more intensively efficient than conventional cropping with sugarcane or beet crop production. Although research is at a preliminary stage at this time we are confident that sugar production will prove to be redoundably dependable and economically cost-effective for the seagrass farming industry in this sector including downstream processing to extract and purify the sugar to crystallinaty specifications.
SKYEVIEW: In NSW Australia there is a major push to institute duckweed, marine seagrass and other spp. like Cryptocoryne for livestock protein nutrition and with pre-treatment with (e.g.s. pre-wilting; HCHO-treated) using swine, poultry and fish, in aquatic ecology, submerged aquaponics and horticultural backyard raising of vegetables and flowering plants; departments we are trying to approach are UNSW, Sydney there in their BABS school and Botany department and at UNE, Armidale with Environmental & Rural Sciences (ERS). At UNSW BABS structural-functional molecular studies are slated as with evidence before with EtBr-DNA binding, alkaloids and spindle fibres in mother cells of plant spp. preventing pollen formation as has already been studied at CSIRO Australia and as hypothesized at SkyeBlue purified lignin or Avicel (R) has improved protein digestion in the diet; as there is evidence of lignin-protein interactions in the diet we are proposing controlled feeding studies with low-quality feed residuals and proteins sources that need protection and improved digestive parameters in ruminants, pigs and poultry or avian spp. There are extensive theories that espouse improvements in lower gut health, immunological regulation of the gut organ system, overall protein utilization from the gut and less use of feed additives like antibiotics.
SKYEVIEW: Goat feeding is considered a "lean game" in the Philippines (try the kare-kare stew as an e. g.) so new developments hypothesized to delay marbling by feeding almost exclusively bypass protein and starch from copra meal and corn meal (yellow) as is practiced in the Philippines with a maintenance ration of seaweeds and seagrasses mainly for high quality fibre and to maintain minimal healthy rumen function is proposed. New biological and chemical methods such as treatment with lactic acid or urea-formaldehyde to create bypass conditions in the rumen for escape of protein, carbohydrate and fats in concentrate will be favourable approaches. A moratorium on growth promoters (e. g. antibiotics, bovine growth hormone or bGH) is likely in public policy farming practices for a more "organic" approach.
SKYEVIEW: As we speak, the Negros Island region is being transformed into the renewable energy capital of the Philippines in geothermally charged electrical grid co-ops and solar power. Additionally, marine hydroponics with other fuel renewables could be just around the corner from 2021 and onwards. By our best reckoning seagrass is gaining biological attention as a coastal erosion breaker and environmental saviour further to this end.
SKYEVIEW: "SkyeBlue" is confident that seagrassponics, as the land-based alternative to off-shore marine-based aquafarming of seaweed, will soon revolutionize opportunities in the use of high-quality feedstock that is readily available using minimal land use in terms of square area with efficiently controlled inputs to optimize production output, primarily addressing the issues of both: (a) boosting growth rate, quite dramatically, using both gene optimization through selective mutagenesis and with, non-GMO protoplasmic fusion, (b) together with biocontainment of pollen-bearing cultivar species using biocides from designer secondary plant alkaloids and, just as important as producing biofeedstock, the primary stream of biopharma aquaponics with its downstream production and isolation using, as before, boosted growth rate development of the host species and with appropriate controls for biocontainment. We will be reporting more on ongoing developments on these new species in the way of production methods through more basic research in this area of agrobiotechnology.
SKYEVIEW: Steps in developing seagrass cultivar use for production purposes are reported here: (1) field study and gathering of var. species, e. g. rooting vs leafy varieties; enumeration or further study of the biology of each spp. of interest: reproductive cycle, time for growth to full maturation, optimum conditions for growth in a hydroponic chambers, anatomic characteristics and differences, etc.; (2) genomic studies of each spp. to identify genes for manipulation; (3) low-level X-ray mutagenesis with repairing protoplasmic fusion, on complete agar plates, on weighted by difference, filter paper (incubated plates contain plant food, auxins, herbicides, anti-septic, etc.) and selection of fastest growing plant cells; it is believed that either transcription factors (TFs) are affected for rate of photosynthesis, or auxin/growth hormone production; (4) regrowth of calli to plantlets and their labour-intensive regrowth to full plants in hydroponic chambers (stacked or en bloc for easy accessibility in case of malfunction/follow-up); (5) harvest and recharging with labour-intensive maintenance of hollow chambers; (6) post-harvest treatment by direct oven-drying and grinding and fed into feedstock input for bio-ethanol production (energy); (7) downstream treatment for biopharmaceutical purification/extraction; (6) & (7) will be used to drive further R&D and biopharming of seagrasses; (8) proximal analysis to measure yield or quality characteristics of feedstock, e. g., crude fibre (and total non-nitrogen carbohydrate fraction), lignin, cellulose, hemi-cellulose, NDF, ash, total reducing sugars, total nitrogen or crude protein, ether extract.
SKYEVIEW: Hydrobiology has come a long way with marine grasses with proposals for aeronautical biodiesel production applications for fuel over that of the currently preferred methods of algal bloom production due to the following advantages:  lower capital and risk,  lower hazard from weather and risk,  dependence-free from potash reserves from Sasketchewan, Canada. The new limiting resource is bat guano and the question is how to guarantee reserves with the following research areas requiring attention now:  study of bat populations & caves (habitats) and reserves, with "etymology- chiropterology" - the study of behavior & biology (e. g. migration patterns, they may attack with rabidity the human population only when provoked, reproduction, etc.),  collection techniques of bat guano made easy from reserves,  and developing and studying reserved geographies within and around [a] Oceana, [b] the Carribbean, [c] Indian Ocean and [d] SE Asian region.
SKYEVIEW: The situation with Haiti was one of fuel reserves for both domestic use and export including aviation applications. The use of tropical varieties is pinioned to weather conditions but exposure to hurricane-force winds unless the process is done in subterranean facilities in addition to above ground with all the capital inputs requisite for this. But in temperate countries like Portugal (e. g. Lisbon) there have been reports of encouraging this technology with compatible use of sheep, goat and cattle dairying with the local cuisine. Apparently, there is a need for fodders without expending more resources to paddock farming and the use of cereals with milk is extensive and the rest to butter and creamery products. Cheeses are produced profusely and cheese and antepasto is a great past time. Also sheep and goat hair fibroin is a traditional product for manufacturers.
SKYEVIEW: Behavioral studies of bats and the recyclability of bat dung proves the recyclable titre of potash and phosphorous from elements in the guano dung are from bat concentration due to recycling of green and human waste compost with fruit tree arboreal refuges. There is a biosafety issue to be addressed via per os vaccination (e. g. rabbies) and confirmed by random controlled testing. The recovery of bat dung from reserves (e. g. caves) can be earmarked and effected via robotic hovering visualizing venture "probes" in caves and further mined or hauled via sound-dampened robotic armed truck loaders that can be hauled with heavy terrain. Further bat studies with cave habitats have to be done to study bat habituation in their habitats with any disturbance to their behaviour from sound pollution, human activity and pollutants to their habitats.
SKYEVIEW: There are updates on upcoming research on seagrasses to help launch projected activities in the area including modifications using the ff. methods of high throughput X-ray mutagenesis, (2) test for genes in DNA via hybridization, (3) further screening for full DNA complement to stringency as the wild-type and (4) protoplast fusion with wild-type. The ff. areas will be further investigated: (1) increasing growth rate or carbon-sinking up to 5-10X the growth rate via recombinant non-GMO approaches like using auxin-stimulated growth mechanisms (a non growth factor also added in plant media), (2) boosting sugars for feedstock for feed and energy via recombinant non-GMO approaches with candidate screeners such as sucrose synthase, soluble acid & neutral invertase, and NAD+-dependent sorbitol dehydrogenase, (3) bionol, a bio-kerosene, for energy via suberin synthesis in roots via recombinant non-GMO approaches and (4) GMO-derived biopharma products as biocontrolled with synthetic, bio-improved agents like Synthroid-Guard (R) (see above) which is believed can and will be served as catalyst to seagrass production in future. New equipment/devices are being developed as we speak in the way of submerged (liquid headspace with isotonic saline, added) slant tubes and occu-wells with filter discs where cultures can be grown/transferred with possible scale-up to prototype fermentors for calli cultures prior to plantlet regeneration and growth & development in hydroponic aquabloc chambers.
SKYEVIEW: A recent boom in indoor gardening might mirror the predicted rise in aquafarming of marine grasses that will work out for land-based operations due to savings with intensive operations compared to tilled, field-based cropping, further boosted by developments in indoor LED lighting for extra energy savings, and various input in terms of growth factors in plant food, herbicides in future to biocontrol GMO varieties and the arrival also in future of bioengineered plants for boosted C-sink growth using "auxin" and photosynthetic mechanisms to achieve sizable increases in growth efficiency and output:cost ratios. Further, the basic commodity sector it covers that is dairy foods and animal protein foods sector is a sure-fire profit-making venture only to be met by high growth population demand in island countries like the Philippines. The same is predicted for growing SE Asian nations around the region including in and around cities for serviceability that are characterized as being conducively smart serviced by high tech energy utilities, transportation and telecommunications, inclusive and accessible, sustainable with renewability, greener inputs and processes and livable with enough space including green spaces and that are clean. The issue to "capacity" to manufacture parts and servicing including manufacturing and sales of equipment and even instrumentation is crucial first of all before the next issue of building and seeding a microsatellited network across its regional land areas and that is transparent for both growers with BioPlants (R) (these have R&D capacity amongst others for servicing outlying areas for plantlets) and producers of dairy food products paints a sound picture with which to work in.
SKYEVIEW: There are newer developments in the "genus family" of technology projects in addition to projected plans for a protoplasmic fused genus arising from two spp. with the ff.: (1) "Golden Rice" charged with carotenoid genes from saffron plant introduced by gene editing (GE) recombination whereby one class gene replaces the exact copy for another class gene. This is known to take place in gene editing (GE); (2) the same with marine grass spp. in addition to what is elsewhere referred to here as (a) C-sink boosting or growth rate and development via either "auxin" mechanisms or via photosynthetic mechanisms and (b) the prospect of introducing hi-sugar grasses together with the low-lignin qualities of this high quality forage ideal for "energy pooling" with probiotics in the rumen stomach; and (3) our so-called HISystem Yeast (fungi - plant kingdom) carrier for monosodium histidine (MSH) overproduction as an AA nutraceutical or supplement for feeding dairy cows on silage using possibly the gene-mechanism of the mutants that lead to overproduction of histidine precursors and histidine saving the requirement for histidine as such or leading to auxotrophy for histidine and resulting to overproduction and content in MSH as processed.
SKYEVIEW: Plant seagrass cropping will be illustrated in a schema prototype involving the plant biosafe facility considered intensive in infrastructure and inputs, biorenewable and biosafe, and leading into it: (a) filtered air supply, (b) other nutrient feed including organic sources of guano, (c) LED powered supply for indoor individual lighting, (d) dispensing supplier of Aquariabloc Technology in series (not parallel) in configuration 24 X 4 in a symmetrical face-to-face arrangement with hardware such as forklifts, framed scaffolding, and truck ramps, utilities [solar powered (lighting, pumping, equipment including electronic controlled hardware), telecoms, cooling/heating from hydrothermal power], (e) Technology staff and (f) computerized control centre with software. The ff. additional features will be used with Aquariabloc Technology (TM): "clean out" clear stripped facing, LED assemblies on 12 diurnal cycle, 24/7, biosafety protocols for HEPA filter, dust, pollen and foot drench, collection hoppers processed to downstream of the bio-plant (e. g. pharma extraction and purification & feedstock hydrolysis), filtered feed of H2O, Ca2PO4, urea, potash, buffered saline, anti-biotics / pesticides / herbicides, air supply, plant food auxins.
SKYEVIEW: We are of the conviction at SkyeBlue that aquaria bloc marinegrass farming for co-op and with industry will kick-off with the ff. germinally unique developments, that would be a momentous step towards intializing technology in likely Island States with large coastal areas, easy recirculatable supply in seawater and amenable weather or clime including protective infrastructure that is both bio-safe and secure as a future growth market area: (1) lower the input prices of energy, materials (like plantlets from nursing, nutrients supplied as inputs), (2) adapted greener technologies that are economically viable and sustainable, in general, (3) boost genetically through adaptation the growth rate and efficiency, there is an issue with hod-gathered hydroponically grown fodders for dairy and cattle and the use of this less luxuriant species, which could be a breakthrough with seagrass "XL" growth varieties, (4) to adapt the type of cost process efficiency (viz. downstream processing) to value-added product for increased profit margin (e. g. as to type- pharma, bioenergy and livestock feedstock) and (5) scale-up from prototype to a commercially viable proposition with further testing.
(c) D. A. Flores. 2022-2050. SKYE BLUE INTERNET. Port Coquitlam. BC. Canada V3B 1G3.