Areas of Business:
- Weed Science - phenolic extractives from plant-bearing sources and gasification (CH4) from fibre like wood pulp, alkaloids and pollination in weed science
- Agriculture Consulting - Plse. write in; FYI available for you (13 research portfolios and counting)
- Aquatic Ecology - water hyacinthe, duckweed, Cryptocoryne (Araceae), marine grass spp.
- Zoology - salt water spp. of fish with brackish fishpond culture and aquamarine resources
- Botany - FYI available for you (e.g. seco-steroidal based pharma)
Bio-nol & Bio-Oil Projects in Canada
The seagrasses are perceived to be hardier and thus more sustainable than algae. The hydroponics tanks is a "swing-away" holding reef configuration, with transparent netting, flocculated with soluble, organic N-P-K from composted marine harvested seaweed and is recirculatable in a closed system and cleaned between harvest. Harvesting of the seagrasses and processing of biomaterials (e.g. refining of biofuels) and separation of feed residues as high quality feedstock for dairy goats and cattle is downstream.
Bionol and Bio-Oils
Suberins as starting material in cut rhizomes and off-shoots in seagrasses consist of polyaliphatics (bionol) residing in the cell membrane and cell wall while the polyaromatics reside in the cell wall alone where the tissues are ruptured and homogenized in a mouton grinder press and the homogenate under high pressure and temperature with glycerol pressure filtered in a glass-sintered funnel thick to several inches and reinforced to the perimeter; the solvent phase is separated out in olefin and aliphatic and aromatic fractions separated by distillation and reduced with reducing agent Bu3SnH; the alphatics are then cracked either: 1) thermally without catalyst under high temperature/pressure or 2) at lower temperature/pressure with catalyst into smaller molecules with zeolites or alumino-silicates to produced kerosene - a mixture of C6-C16 molecules.
Goat Dairy Feeding
Dairy feeding requires high quality forages such as from seagrasses which have been fed from gathered areas in coastal beaches in the southern Indian subcontinent for generations. Pelleted concentrate can be fed in addition to ad lib feeding of forage composed of binder, copra meal:ground yellow corn (30:70), rice bran, crushed oyster shell and salt. It is open to conjecture at this point if SSF pre-treatments would serve the purpose of dried, ground seagrass residues from seagrassponics culture.
Dairy in the Philippines includes feeding harvested Napier grass as valuable long fibres of good quality and calls for further investigation of utilization of eco-friendly seagrasses both fresh and estuarine in self-fertilizing fish pond culture in unimproved land and near coastal areas. Additionally spp. like duckweed and other lilly can be used in estuarine settings for regenerating or refreshing brackish waters a valuable tool in environmental remediation.
The XL Grow Variety
This non-GMO variety presented a further opportunity for economics to grow pharma as a derivative byproduct in seagrass farming in addition to the mainstay of bioethanol including higher density alcohols of greater energy yield. Not to mention land-based configuring to intensify and via alkaloids biocontain the XL varieties from plant pollination. At this point it is up for grabs as to how to grow these high quality fodders whether intensively or via other scenarios for land use improvements for both productive ends and for environmental protection or oversight.
Study Trials with Aquatic Water Hyacinthe:
The following issues are apparent with recent scientific studies.
1) Ensilage is required for feeding in response to proper: handling (mechanized such as harvesting and chopping); processing; storage, and preservation; and required feeding availability year round.
2) Mixture with grass silage at first is required although pure aquatic plant silage is palatable also after adaptation; this likely has to do with protein status, intake and protein rumen digestion.
3) Heavy soil contamination is a significant problem unless extensive washing of aquatic plants is carried out.
4) Screw pressing to reduce H2O before ensilage is required and run-off collected from silos is also required for palatability or acceptance. ~50% removal of water.
5) Additives as preservatives to improve quality of silage, viz. intake & palatability in part due to acidity and quality of preservation are, e. g. citrus pulp, cracked yellow corn or grain, sugarcane molasses and organic acids at 2-4% rate for palatability or acceptance; propionic/acetic acids (8:2) and formic acid are good preservatives. This relates directly to preservation of adequate protein content.
6) Species dependency (e. g. native dairy cows, steers, sheep) in palatability varies.
7) Grasses are not inferior or lower in digestibility necessarily; the opposite can in fact be true; paddy straw is compatible with feeding water hyacinthe.
8) Paddy straw and water hyacinthe silage supplemented for N (e. g. legumes, ground nut cake, fishmeal, rice bran, copra meal and corn meal) is a viable feed source for meat & dairy where feed resources are otherwise scarce; feed is high in carbohydrates.
9) Hyacinthe plants float while other aquatics are submerged. % CF content suggests plants are highly digestible.
10) Paddy straw + aquatic plants with sugarcane feeding regimes should be further investigated as a promising feed for dairy cows.
11) Protein Digestion/Intake of DM or OM is dependent on: a) N supplementation with legumes, grains and byproduct feeds, or combining with other feeds, b) silage quality, e. g. additives and methods, c) supply of good quality, long fibres for rumen digestion, d) low %CF for higher digestibility.
SKYEVIEW: In NSW Australia there is a major push to institute duckweed, marine seagrass and other spp. like Cryptocoryne for livestock protein nutrition and with pre-treatment with (e.g.s. pre-wilting; HCHO-treated) using swine, poultry and fish, in aquatic ecology, submerged aquaponics and horticultural backyard raising of vegetables and flowering plants; departments we are trying to approach are UNSW, Sydney there in their BABS school and Botany department and at UNE, Armidale with Environmental & Rural Sciences (ERS). At UNSW BABS structural-functional molecular studies are slated as with evidence before with EtBr-DNA binding, alkaloids and spindle fibres in mother cells of plant spp. preventing pollen formation as has already been studied at CSIRO Australia and as hypothesized at SkyeBlue purified lignin or Avicel (R) has improved protein digestion in the diet; as there is evidence of lignin-protein interactions in the diet we are proposing controlled feeding studies with low-quality feed residuals and proteins sources that need protection and improved digestive parameters in ruminants, pigs and poultry or avian spp. There are extensive theories informally speaking that espouse improvements in lower gut health, immunology regulation of the gut organ system, overall protein utilization from the gut and less use of feed additives like antibiotics apart from vitamins and minerals from the feed.
SKYEVIEW: Bionol and bio-oil fuel renewables can be traded for geothermally generated rechargeable battery systems in geologicallly active islands like Negros in the Philippine archipelago including applications in transportation.
SKYEVIEW: Goat feeding is considered a "lean game" in the Philippines (try the kare-kare stew as an e. g.) so new developments hypothesized to delay marbling by feeding almost exclusively bypass protein and starch from copra meal and corn meal (yellow) as is practiced in the Philippines with a maintenance ration of seaweeds and seagrasses mainly for high quality fibre and to maintain minimal healthy rumen function is proposed. New biological and chemical methods such as treatment with lactic acid or urea-formaldehyde to create bypass conditions in the rumen for escape of protein, carbohydrate and fats in concentrate will be favourable approaches. A moratorium on growth promoters (e. g. bovine growth hormone or bGH) will be declared likely in public policy in farming practices for a balanced "organic" approach.
SKYEVIEW: As we speak, the Negros Island region is being transformed into the renewable energy capital of the Philippines in geothermally charged electrical grid co-ops and solar power. Marine hydroponics and fuel renewables could be just around the corner.
SKYEVIEW: At SkyeBlue we are confident that seagrassponics, as the land-based alternative to off-shore marine-based aquafarming of seaweed, will soon revolutionize opportunities in the use of high-quality feedstock that is readily available using minimal land use in terms of square area with efficiently controlled inputs to optimize production output, primarily addressing the issues of both: (a) boosting growth rate, quite dramatically, using both gene optimization through selective mutagenesis and with, note, non-GMO protoplasmic fusion, (b) together with biocontainment of pollen-bearing cultivar species using biocides from designer secondary plant alkaloids and, just as important as producing biofeedstock, the primary stream of biopharma aquaponics with its downstream production and isolation using, as before, boosted growth rate development of the host species and with appropriate controls for biocontainment. We will be reporting more on ongoing developments with these new species in the way of production methods through more basic research in this area of agronomic biotech.
SKYEVIEW: Steps in developing seagrass cultivar use for production purposes are reported here: (1) field study and gathering of var. species, e. g. rooting vs leafy varieties; enumeration or further study of the biology of each spp. of interest: reproductive cycle, time for growth to full maturation, optimum conditions for growth in a hydroponic chambers, anatomic characteristics and differences, etc.; (2) genomic studies of each spp. to identify genes for manipulation; (3) low-level X-ray mutagenesis with repairing protoplasmic fusion, on complete agar plates, on weighted by difference, filter paper (incubated plates contain plant food, auxins, herbicides, anti-septic, etc.) and selection of fastest growing plant cells; it is believed that either transcription factors (TFs) are affected for rate of photosynthesis, or auxin/growth hormone production; (4) regrowth of calli to plantlets and their labour-intensive regrowth to full plants in hydroponic chambers (stacked or en bloc for easy accessibility in case of malfunction/follow-up); (5) harvest and recharging with labour-intensive maintenance of hollow chambers; (6) post-harvest treatment by direct oven-drying and grinding and fed into feedstock input for bio-ethanol production (energy); (7) downstream treatment for biopharmaceutical purification/extraction; (6) & (7) will be used to drive further R&D and biopharming of seagrasses; (8) proximal analysis to measure yield or quality characteristics of feedstock, e. g., crude fibre (and total non-nitrogen carbohydrate fraction), lignin, cellulose, hemi-cellulose, NDF, ash, total reducing sugars, total nitrogen or crude protein, ether extract, etc.
SKYEVIEW: Hydrobiology has come a long way with marine grasses with proposals for aeronautical biodiesel production applications for fuel over that of the currently preferred methods of algal bloom production due to the following advantages:  lower capital and risk,  lower hazard from weather and risk,  dependence-free from potash reserves from Sasketchewan, Canada. The new limiting resource is bat guano and the question is how to guarantee reserves with the following research areas requiring attention now:  study of bat populations & caves (habitats) and reserves, with "etymology- chiropterology" - the study of behavior & biology (e. g. migration patterns, they may attack with rabidity the human population only when provoked, reproduction, etc.),  collection techniques of bat guano made easy from reserves,  and developing and studying reserved geographies within and around [a] Oceana, [b] the Carribbean, [c] Indian Ocean and [d] SE Asian region.
SKYEVIEW: The situation with Haiti was one of fuel reserves for both domestic use and export including aviation applications. The use of tropical varieties is pinioned to weather conditions but exposure to hurricane-force winds unless the process is done in subterranean facilities in addition to above ground with all the capital inputs requisite for this. But in temperate countries like Portugal (e. g. Lisbon) there have been reports of encouraging this technology with compatible use of sheep, goat and cattle dairying with the local cuisine. Apparently, there is a need for fodders without expending more resources to paddock farming and the use of cereals with milk is extensive and the rest to butter and creamery products. Cheeses are produced profusely and cheese and antepasto is a great past time. Also sheep and goat hair fibroin is a traditional product for manufacturers.
SKYEVIEW: Behavioral studies of bats and the recyclability of bat dung proves the recyclable titre of potash and phosphorous from elements in the guano dung are from bat concentration due to recycling of green and human waste compost with fruit tree arboreal refuges. There is a biosafety issue to be addressed via per os vaccination (e. g. rabbies) and confirmed by random controlled testing. The recovery of bat dung from reserves (e. g. caves) can be earmarked and effected via robotic hovering visualizing venture "probes" in caves and further mined or hauled via sound-dampened robotic armed truck loaders that can be hauled with heavy terrain. Further bat studies with cave habitats have to be done to study bat habituation in their habitats with any disturbance to their behaviour from sound pollution, human activity and pollutants to their habitats.
SKYEVIEW: There are updates on upcoming research on seagrasses to help launch projected activities in the area including modifications using the ff. methods of high throughput X-ray mutagenesis, (2) test for genes in DNA via hybridization, (3) further screening for full DNA complement to stringency as the wild-type and (4) protoplast fusion with wild-type. The ff. areas will be further investigated: (1) increasing growth rate or carbon-sinking up to 5-10X the growth rate via recombinant non-GMO approaches like using auxin-stimulated growth mechanisms (a non growth factor also added in plant media), (2) boosting sugars for feedstock for feed and energy via recombinant non-GMO approaches with candidate screeners such as sucrose synthase, soluble acid & neutral invertase, and NAD+-dependent sorbitol dehydrogenase, (3) bionol, a bio-kerosene, for energy via suberin synthesis in roots via recombinant non-GMO approaches and (4) GMO-derived biopharma products as biocontrolled with synthetic, bio-improved agents like Synthroid-Guard (R) (see above) which is believed can and will be served as catalyst to seagrass production in future. New equipment/devices are being developed as we speak in the way of submerged (liquid headspace with isotonic saline, added) slant tubes and occu-wells with filter discs where cultures can be grown/transferred with possible scale-up to prototype fermentors for calli cultures prior to plantlet regeneration and growth & development in hydroponic aquabloc chambers.
SKYEVIEW: A recent boom in indoor gardening might mirror the predicted rise in aquafarming of marine grasses that will work out for land-based operations due to savings with intensive operations compared to tilled, field-based cropping, further boosted by developments in indoor LED lighting for extra energy savings, and various input in terms of growth factors in plant food, herbicides in future to biocontrol GMO varieties and the arrival also in future of bioengineered plants for boosted C-sink growth using "auxin" and photosynthetic mechanisms to achieve sizable increases in growth efficiency and output:cost ratios. Further, the basic commodity sector it covers that is dairy foods and animal protein foods sector is a sure-fire profit-making venture only to be met by high growth population demand in island countries like the Philippines. The same is predicted for growing SE Asian nations around the region including in and around cities for serviceability that are characterized as being conducively smart serviced by high tech energy utilities, transportation and telecommunications, inclusive and accessible, sustainable with renewability, greener inputs and processes and livable with enough space including green spaces and that are clean.
SKYEVIEW: There are newer developments in the "genus family" of technology projects in addition to projected plans for a protoplasmic fused genus arising from two spp. with the ff.: (1) "Golden Rice" charged with carotenoid genes from saffron plant introduced by gene editing (GE) recombination whereby one class gene replaces the exact copy for another class gene. This is known to take place in gene editing (GE); (2) the same with marine grass spp. in addition to what is elsewhere referred to here as (a) C-sink boosting or growth rate and development via either "auxin" mechanisms or via photosynthetic mechanisms and (b) the prospect of introducing hi-sugar grasses together with the low-lignin qualities of this high quality forage ideal for "energy pooling" with probiotics in the rumen stomach; and (3) our so-called HISystem Yeast (fungi - plant kingdom) carrier for monosodium histidine (MSH) overproduction as an AA nutraceutical or supplement for feeding dairy cows on silage using possibly the gene-mechanism of the mutants that lead to overproduction of histidine precursors and histidine saving the requirement for histidine as such or leading to auxotrophy for histidine and resulting to overproduction and content in MSH as processed.
SKYEVIEW: Plant seagrass cropping will be illustrated in a schema prototype involving the plant biosafe facility considered intensive in infrastructure and inputs, biorenewable and biosafe, and leading into it: (a) filtered air supply, (b) other nutrient feed including organic sources of bat guano, (c) LED powered supply for indoor individual lighting, (d) dispensing supplier of Aquariabloc Technology (R), (e) hardware such as forklifts, framed scaffolding, and truck ramps, utilities [solar powered (lighting, pumping, equipment including electronic controlled hardware), telecoms, cooling/heating from geothermal power], (f) Technology staff and (g) computerized control centre with software. The ff. hardware is used: (a) Aquariabloc Technology (R) - disposable, (b) Forklift Trucks Technology (R) - blocked assembly, (c) scaffolding ramps, (d) cantilevered bloc maintenance, (e) monitors for feed & wastelines (recycled), (f) "clean out" clear stripping, (g) LED assemblies on 12 diurnal cycle, 24/7, (h) biosafety protocols for HEPA filter, dust, pollen and foot drench, (i) collection hopper processed to downstream of plant (e. g. pharma extraction and purification & stock hydrolysis), (j) filtered feed of H2O, Ca2PO4, urea, potash, buffered saline, anti-biotics/pesticides/ herbicides, (k) air supply, (l) plant food auxins.
SKYEVIEW: We are of the conviction at SkyeBlue that aquaria bloc marinegrass farming for co-op and with industry will kick-off with the ff. germinally unique developments, that would be a momentous step towards intializing technology in likely Island States with large coastal areas, easy recirculatable supply in seawater and amenable weather or clime including protective infrastructure that is both bio-safe and secure: (1) lower the input prices of energy, materials (like plantlets from nursing, nutrients supplied as inputs), (2) use through adaptation operations with hydroponics culture used currently in Western countries and in Asia such as with adapted flatbed bloc aquaria, (3) adapt greener technologies that are economically viable and sustainable, (4) boost genetically through adaptation the growth rate and efficiency (there is an issue with hod-gathered hydroponically grown fodders for dairy and cattle and the use of this less luxuriant species, which could be a breakthrough with seagrass "XL" growth varieties, (5) to adapt the type of cost process efficiency (viz. downstream processing) to value-added product for profit margin (e. g. as to type- pharma, bioenergy and livestock feed biomass) and (6) scale-up from prototype to commercially viable proposition with testing.