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SAMPLE CONTENT FOR OUR SKYENEWS "WIRE" SERVICE:
We regularly present new developments and their advancements at Skye Blue in their fields that are current with the published literature (trade and refereed journals, in e-media, and books).
LETTER FROM OUR EDITOR TO OUR READERS ON A NEW PLANNED PUBLICATION (2017) ON THE TOPICS OF THE SBO GROUP OF COS.:
``New Biotechnologies for Australia, Canada, the Philippines and the Related and Russo Republics: 2017.``
Current Research Themes in Overview the SBO’s Internet-Based Folios:
Bio-based technologies in the context of innovation systems. I. Aquaculture to the next 40 years of sustainable global aquaculture. II. Algal biomass, biofuels and bioproducts. III. Cell symposia, immunomodulation: from mechanisms to therapy. IV. Interface between nutrition and pharma (2013). V. Challenges in bioorganic and organic medicinal chemistry (cf. Asia Tetrahedron Symposium). VI. Brain research and optogenetics and pharmacogenetics in neuronal function and dysfunction. VII. Cognitive enhancers in pharmacology. VIII. Cell neuromodulatory mechanisms. IX. Biosafety of Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs). X. Neurodevelopment and neurological disease. XI. Neuroprotection: basic mechanisms and translational potential. Systems approach to metabolic diseases. XII. Developmental neuroscience (2014) (ISDN-Int. Soc. For Developmental Neuroscience). (Taken from the pro-forma agenda by Hum-Molgen.de. this Internet site)
Prebiotics & Feeds
Prebiotic effects or substances in plant feed that are fermented and lead to beneficial effects on animal digestion have been proposed to increase the efficiency of microbial cell protein (MCP) synthesis and/or the protein flows and energy. Pro-poor policies are becoming more self-evident as we approach the future when eventually 9B people will need to be fed. Approaches including rec-DNA in animal feeding and rumen digestion will be expected to be in plac. Here are a few e.g.s. : High-Sugar, Dual-Purpose Cropping and GMO Probiotic Cellulolytics. I. Introduction. Bio-cropping (i. e. the genetic modification of crops for improvement of utilization traits in biotechnological crops) and new insights and approaches to cellulolytics, one approach in modifying rumen digestion will be considered in this discussion. The rural, small farmer needs better tools to increase productive ends with greater efficiency in keeping up with upward food production growing population demands using cost-effective ones including in-built recombinant crops with improved utilization (e. g. digestive) traits. II. High-Sugar Grasses. Clover and alfalfa, MAS breeding, recombinant approaches (maternal segregation) and biosafety, rumen simulation techniques to study efficiency and feeding trials with dairy cattle. III.Dual-Purpose Crops. Non-protein nitrogen (NPN) and the value for feeding fibrous crop residues (FCR) for food and animal feeds. Recombinant approaches to using surrogate proteins (e. g. albumins from legume seeds) in corn and rice, as examples. Feeding trials comparing dual-purpose NPN and urea-supplemented diets. IV. GMOs in Rumen Digestion. New approaches to cloning in the rumen: 1) the cellulosome (i. e. the complex of binding adhesins and dockerins and the cellulases) with high efficiency (GM)/low energy of maintenance, 2) use of suicide vectors (single-site insertion of short sequences with suicide of vector donor plasmids), 3) evolution of improved GM transport porins with increased capacity to transport pre-formed amino acids (i. e. peptides) to improve efficiency of microbial cell protein (MCP) synthesis, 4) and selection of donor hosts with recombinant enzymes that bind effectively with and that bind the particulate phase in rumen digesta and have better sustained half-life of retention in rumen contents.
Letter to the Editor, J. of Biotechnology on advances on prebiotic effects in rumen metabolism
Alf Puhler, Editor-in-Chief, J. of Biotechnology
Dear: Dr./Prof. Alf Puhler,
Earlier we submitted for consideration a suggestion for a review a research topic that impacts feeds with ruminant livestock especially addressing the need for adequate proteinogenesis from rumen microbial cell protein biomass synthesis discussing in particular water-soluble carbohydrates (WSC) and peptides believed to be the two most important factors in feed for optimization in forages, in particular, grass silages (GS), such as those in temperate climes.
As you made it clear, earlier, there has to be considerable scope and insight or depth in the discussion of, in particular, the better studied WSC fructo-oligosaccharides and their role as prebiotics in terms of energetics: availability and cell division (DNA) (viz. schemata with ATP, NADPH, folate, Vit B12) impacting efficiency of biomass cell production per energy expenditure, to be further studied.
Peptides will be transported with differential rate or efficiency and energy of transport and as known the energy of incorporating amino acids from peptides consumes less ATP than free amino acids to biomass protein in microbes and it is beginning to be revealed that protein that is optimally less degradable and released for utilization and uptake is more efficiently taken up into microbial protein; one more model to prove this is to down regulate protease activity and heat damage grazed forage and measure against a control the efficiency of digestive use of feed protein nitrogen (N) (see: Flores, 1991; Flores, 2013).
D. A. Flores
- A Journal of Biotechnology Reviewer
Outline for J. Biotech.
Title: “A Mini-review: Factors Affecting the Efficiency of Microbial Protein Synthesis in the Rumen of Sheep.” by D. A. Flores
I. Transport Processes & Rates of Pre-formed Amino Acids+Peptides (APPs) through the Cell Membrane. A Metabolic Principle: It takes less ATP to incorporate preformed amino acids (PFAAs) into microbial cell protein (MCP) vs de novo synthesis.
II. Mitogenesis or rate of cell division(ATP, NADPH, THF, B12, DNA synthesis). New Theories: <<stimulation>> of energetic efficiency and mitogenesis, in addition to availability.
III. Apoptosis. In higher cells alpha-TNF is related to cell death. There is yet no evidence linking fructan oligosaccharides (FOS) directly with apoptosis in lower cells unlike equine peripheral blood cell models where alpha-TNF can be measured and related further to mitogenesis.
IV. Uncoupling. It is of interest with bacterial cells that "uncoupling" energetic efficiency occurs with relative efficiency differences under energy-limiting conditions (see: P. Sharma et al., 2012) and could be used as a basis for further studies into substrate and availability regards efficiency and yield in biomass in the rumen.
Anaerobic Lignase on Ligno-cellulose Biomass
Anaerobic sources are beginning to be isolated and enzymes characterized. This application will blow wide open the use of ensilage (tropical & temperate) on byproduct lignocellulose biomass for animal feedstock and bioenergy. In the current use of technologies to crack the lignin barrier with 'anaerobic tools', microbiology as it applies to anaerobic bioremediative processes and the rumen pose scenarios where fibrolytics can be further explored. E-mail us if you wish to hear more about the latest in use of polymeric fragmentation with LC/MS (liquid chromatography/mass spectrophotometry) and dimerized fluorometric assays to isolate, identify and further characterize enzymes for fibrolysis of ligno-cellulose as feedstock for feed, food and energy and genomics to construct probes for hybridization studies to enumerate and identify microbial isolates with superior lignase activity and further genomics to resolve further "homologues" amongst enzyme activities. TFs (transcription factors) assays will further identify regulatory elements for lignase production.
Recent Probiotic Approaches for Animal Feeding and Energy Generation. Recent developments in probiotics are covered in the book's new edition (2017) on three fronts: 1) Lactobacillus recominants to improve digestibility and nutritional quality profile of silages, e. g. recombinant endoglucanases in lactobacillus improving on sugar availability; recombinant Lactobacillus (e. g. rec-endoglucanases) can be "bio-contained" with the application of biocides (e. g. Abs, antibiotics) administered by even spraying on an awled, belt-driven feeder with UV iiradiation lamp exposure; the biocide, rec-proteins, produced kills more effectively at accelerated growth rates;; UV-irradiation should complete sterilization in feed processing; in theory, this makes for a practical proposal with this type of application possible in reality; 2) Co-cultured probiotic in continuous fermentation anaerobic flow digesters using farm, animal and fibre byproduct wastes such as N. frontalis (fungi) and Methanobrevibacter ruminantium (bacteria) for producing methane byproduct enhanced in synergy (see: Yak co-culture by YQ Wei, 2016); and finally 3) Ureolysis of Straw using ureolytics selected for enzymes that have superior intermediate and end-product-generating ability in ureolysis and acting on lignin.
- ANIMAL GROWTH, REPRODUCTION AND DEVELOPMENT journal.
A new Journal we are proposing for the Skye Blue family of journals. We are formally inviting all those who wish to publish their papers to use the "facility" of the Res. Coop.org, Kyoto (Admin.).
Comments: The users of this schemata will notice that the categories cover animal research in an animal facility, animal production as the operational and economic management of livestock, medical biochemistry as connoted amalgamated as: biochemistry, microbiology and immunology, aspects of digestion and metabolism in gastroenterology including aspects of ruminant digestion and physiology, the new computational field of genetic analysis as the basis of solving the whole metabolosome and, finally, reproductive endocrinology and technology with breeding and genetics for improving efficiency with the end of bringing about genetic improvement and increasing herd size.
Animal Research & Technology: An article that might be launched is with growth, proliferation and differentiation and development of the immune system against cancer cells and pathogens. As it has been mentioned immunogeneisis with the use of activated mobilized systemic lymphocytotic germinal cell line anti-proliferative hormonal cell blockers and cell proliferative factors with cell-targeting from complement-like cytocytosis and phagocytosis, an example of oncogeneic therapeutics with in vivo cell lines with sheep and others yet to be investigated.
PART B. Animal Production Science. Feeds processing (e. g. dehydration, pelleting) and formulation for avian and porcine species, so-called high-end producers with faster growth rates or improved feed efficiency. In Australia, their market, for example, values ovine species as a choice and because of comparative valuation is increasing in value or profitability with the consumer.
PART C. Biochemistry, Microbiology & Immunology. Intrinsic anti-viral immunity boosted performance and its possible prophylactic use after infection to control pandemic outbreaks. Cell-based systems can be explored and cell signaling could be a possible area in relation to cell-cell activation of these protein products.
The immunogeneic system as has been observed with subjects are higher <titred> than other cases in which cases body fluid secretions and the incidence of microbiota including faecal (e. g. fungi) and autochthonous colonies on skin surfaces, the buccal cavity (dental) and the scalp (dandruff) can in the future be controlled or regulated using immunogeneic tools to <titre>. Thus, personal hygiene, an important medical subject in addition to public health (human to human contact and food poisoning) will finally be solved. Micro biota balance in the digestive tract is presumed in equilibrium with immune boosting as health pro-biota balance them when taken internally.
PART D. Nutritional Biochemistry. Nutritionals such as Vit D and fructan related drug targets in metabolism and their effect on the inflammation response and diseases affecting the reactions in the adipose and muscle against insulin and glucose uptake (i. e. insulin resistance), inflammation of the interior arterial wall and infection leading to plaque and eventual occlusion in heart disease and the inflammation of the lower bowel and eventual development of polyps and metastasis of cancer cells. JNK1 and p38 are small molecules that play a key role and are to be further investigated for cognates and possible drug targets.
PART E. Digestive Metabolism & Physiology.
PART F. Gastroenterology.
PART G. Computational Biology. An example of use of bioinformatics by programming and sequencing to map linkages and loci using script software and using genetic correlation with phenotype with high capacity microarrays, and further, exploring use of medelling the organosome (see above) for developmental, proliferative, differentiation and growth of cellular systems with further investigation of the systemic and ex vivo low molecular weight [LMW] proteome and correlates.
PART H. Reproductive Endocrinology and Technology. Developmental endocrinology in reproductive biology and cloning techniques in fetal growth and development for a greater gestational size or live weight at birth (see: C. R. Krishnamurti, of the Univ. of British Columbia in CANADA).
The use of gene therapy pre-partum upon in vitro fertilization and after gestation, for example, as has been proposed for brain developmental-related diseases if there is a metabolic "lock" on the onset or progression of disease as diagnosed by its various symptoms is possible (see: MEDBIOTECHNOLOGY, hum-molgen.de).
PART I. Nanotechnology. The cellulosome in probiotics in the rumen as is being studied at this time has been modelled to be one of the most efficient in terms of a functional unit for its purpose including as H. J. Gilbert has stated in one review that the cellulosome is made of constructed modular components for binding the complex, binding substrate and enzymatic action on substrate and 'adapt' to optimize action on substrate. One examples of new technology with a peculiar form of lignin, C lignin, devoid of methyl grps. is the possibility of forming coiled tubules at nano-scale.
PART J. Bioethics of Animal Care, Reproductive Biotechnology and their Natural Environment.
- September 2012 to Present
Outlining the demand for foods in the future with complex carbohydrates reviewing new and proposed research in fortifying these plant crops (e.g. cereals, fruits and vegetables, and orphaned crops as the sweet potato, bananas and cassava) and their health-conferring benefits regards inflammatory response and occupational-related diseases such as atherosclerosis, diabetes and cancers. We are publishing this new paper on the links between chronic inflammation, immunonogeneic response and disease states, such as diabetes, atherosclerosis and cancer, and their links to both nutritionals, Vit D and fructans, in the lower gut, a clue to the linkage between the two factors and other diseases also linked to the prolonged chronic elicitation or aggravation of the inflammation response. We invite editorial oversight on the investigation of the inflammation process including published/unpublished research findings on this exciting and growing field in health research. There are new monoclonal antibodies administered by subcutaneous injection that can be used against products of genes that help activate inflammation or possibly act to enhance the production of gene products that help modulate the inflammation cascade, with nutritionals. Vaccines would of course not be a functional route, unlike the in vitro, ex vivo therapeutic modality of producing monoclonal antibodies.
Biomolecular and Medical Journal (est. 2008) - Molecular Medicine & Nanotechnology
We featured (see: MEDBIOS, Hum-Molgen.de) a hot topic on parallels in Vit D and fructan metabolism in atherosclerosis, diabetes and cancer and implications on drug discovery recently. Despite lack of head way, we would like, however, to broaden the base of research with our regular, web-based features including journal articles (with references). A recent addition coming out will be on multiple sclerosis and the modulation of the immune response. Antigens can be used with monoclonals or with new nanotechnology. This is exciting to us as it has required consultation and collaboration between industry and academe including medical practitioners. There is an approach with Vit D and fructan metabolism that presents future potential for drug discovery.
Biomolecular and Medical Journal (est. 2008) - Molecular Medicine & Nanotechnology
The "metabolosome" (see: MEDBIOS epharma/ehealth, hum-molgen.de) is beginning to be studied although little attention has been given to genetic predisposition or genomics and phenotype (viz. longevity or "good genes"; the mystery of "protective genes" against life-style related diseases) and the use of in vitro, ex vivo studies with possible biomarker candidates with electrophoresis/MS and down the road for drug discovery. As developments unfold we will be featuring possible papers (with references) on this research topic.
With cardionemic foods there is a dual effect on physio-musculo tissue function which one can speculate as to putative biogenic factors in tissue acting to improve or facilitate cardio-musculo health and other aspects of cardiovascular health. The focus on omega-3 fatty acids as the so-called 'in toto factor', is one area that is to be further explored.
Flax seed oil supplements (a source of omega-3 fatty acid) is implicated in reducing inflammation with auto-immune disease such as lupus and may have implications in cardio-health as do all omega-3-fatty acid sources including fish and olive oil. As well, the use of complex carbohydrates implicated in maintaining cardio-health and implicated here with inflammation is likewise a factor in cardiohealth risk.
At Skye Blue, along trends in cellulosic ethanol production and development, use of new enzymes especially lignases (see: lignase-type II) will make the enzyme cocktail (cf. to Novozyme's CTec3) more efficient after physical disruption with steam/SO2 and fermentation expected from 70%, and up, of the glucose from bagasse; yeast that breaks down cellulose and ferments glucose to ethanol will also be developed for higher tolerance to endproducts; the growing trend for use of biorenewable green fuels, despite large existent and available reserves of fossil-sourced fuels, albeit, supply and security issues and world fuel prices, will make Brazil, a world leader in use of biorenewables from sugarcane and corn in the future; switchgrass, miscanthus, corn stover, wheat straw and other sources of glucose for ethanol and other longer-chain alcohols, more energy dense, will also be used. Biorenewables and other forms of clean energy will be impacted continually with fossil oil and CH4 gas reserves. In the Philippines, controversy with China over the deep sea offshore reserves of 613 billion barrels of oil plus a trillion gallons more of natural gas, second only to Saudi Arabia's. Confrontations and deployments, exploration rights, UN and regional arbitrations, technology agreements, refining facilities, distribution and shipment affecting supply of fossil fuels, will determine the 'other side' of the biorenewables debate with its own issues of demand for grain and new developments of by-product feeding outside human food supplies. Bioethanol as a biofuel will continue to mature as a viable commercialized operation (viz. Brazil, as we speak) and in a pro-active manner a step ahead but with the conventional fuels industry. In the Philippine-China scenario, foreign relations will be dealt with to follow international rule of law and aggressive takeovers overseas (viz. China with its purchase of energy companies with pipelines from western Canada).
Cellulosic Ethanol' s Recent Developments with Water Buffalo Microbial Fermentation
The International Buffalo Knowledge Resource Services (IBKRS.net) recently launched their website which we are following closely for cellulosic ethanol with current speculation involving water buffalo rumen genomics as to superior lignocellulosics and their rumen lignases present in rumen fluid (a process has been developed for use in cellulosic ethanol production) supported by the fact acid pre-treatment can be replaced with simpler mechanical grinding to make the ligno-cellulose amenable to hydrolysis and fermentation of sugars. The system utilizing the innoculum from water buffalo rumen stomachs can be further enriched by earlier studies implicating a role for water soluble carbohydrates (WSCs) and pre-formed amino acids (PFAAs) in increasing the efficiency and rates of rumen fermentation for cellulosic ethanol production.
Seagrass, Algae & Seaweed Aqua Farming for Ligno-cellulosic Feeds, Bioorganic Fertilizers, and Energy, and for Surrogate Drugs and Other Specialty Fine-Chemicals with Marine Ecology.
Just as a preview to the overall problem of using supposedly significant aquafarming in the Philippines for products like vaccines, hormones, monoclonals and other biologics or therapeutics and 'green' energy, as expected, there has been no research work launched on aquafarming with seagrasses, that we know of.
But as we suspect, there is considerable scope or potential in terms of present and growing meadow grasses and will entail estimating potential meadow area cropped, species and growth rate and overall yield (tons/ha).
Seagrass leaves lack stomata (microscopic pores on the underside of the leaves) but have a thin cuticle to allow gas and nutrient exchange. They absorb carbon dioxide that is dissolved in the water and utilize the oxygen they produce during photosynthesis. They reproduce vegetatively via rhizoid root culture and form dense mats often composed of a single species. They can be vegetatively generated and transplanted supposedly in hydroponic aquaculture and raised in their marine habitat enclosed with transparent 'aqua netting'. Labour-intensive input will no doubt play a major role in this form of aquafarming from germination, planting to harvesting.
Downstream, processing will require a homogenization to disrupt cell structure and release of cell membrane components and the cytosol including polyaliphatics and bio-oils, the cracked for kerosene (C6-C16) for aviation fuel, octane for transport fuel and further for manufacture of plastics and specialty-fine chemicals for industry.
It is still a question as to methods and how to culture rhizoidal cells and successfully grow and how to transform them and with what systems. What are the vectors to use and transformation methods. The cell wall is apparently relatively thin and could be amenable to the 'bullet' method of DNA coated gold micro ball bearings shot biolistically through the cell wall, as with plant transformation. We have papers outlining recent research on plans to use oilseeds as hosts for cutins and suberins, both forms of plant waxes up to C-32 in length in addition to fatty acids from oil for biodiesel and aerospace applications. There is also another approach with straw or seagrass to glucose and conversion to C5-C8 alcohols on the experimental bench with E. coli fermentation yet to realize a commercially viable titre for this purpose.
In future, to contain biologically the genetically modified (GM) pollen in these flowering plants, maternal segregation in the mitochondrial DNA will be used as a "de-risking mechanism".
(A Book chapter will be available in 2017 by Tellwell.ca, VIC BC CANADA.)
- Senior Undergraduate Research Project in: Synthetic Biology/Medicinal Chemistry.
"A Resynthesis with Its Intermediates and Its Applications for Drug Discovery of Lanosterol ."
Synthetic biology uses chemical protocols and inferences to solve mechanistic problems useful for medicinal chemistry. There are two sides to this problem on the sterol lanosterol. Problem A will involve lanosterol and its synthesis with reduction of C-25 on the side-chain. If resynthesized and a 13C label placed on the side-chain on C26 the reduction of the alpha-beta unsaturation on its plane would result in a chiral centre determining if the H is introduced above as opposed to below the plane of symmetry. A 13C NMR scan would show the position of the lone peak upstream or downstream depending on nuclear shielding. The last step is in question as to whether a Wolff-Kishner Reduction is an effective route or whether the one-pot reduction with solvent n-butyl silane or diethyl silane (Si-H) that reacts 1H per -OH group and sequentially 2H per carbonyl group using the catalyst tri(pentafluorophenyl)borane. The phenols are converted to silyloxybenzenes. Problem B with synthetic biology in this work is to synthesize a derivative of a precursor to Vit D's active compounds through the liver/kidneys that back inhibits (feedback inhibition, FBI) as an 'agonist' and could be a candidate as a pro-Vit D therapeutic drug. A major hurdle of this type of research is with animals that starts with lanosterol (animals and fungi) which convert this to cholesterol via the cytochrome P-450 superfamily of enzymes in 19 steps (drugs in pharma can take typically up to 21 steps) and to 7-dehydrocholesterol and upon irradiation to cholecalciferol or Vit D3 and to related hormones like calcidiol in the liver and kidney. Enzyme affinity and avidity to drug analogues is a question open to experimentation with structure-mechanisms to be studied with the enzymes involved in proteomics, structural folding studies, x-ray crystallography and structure-proofing to make the lanosterol side-chain derivatives bind constructively by residue replacement. Orientation and proximity (e. g. hydrogen-bonding between the aldehyde group of the prosthetic side-chain and amino acid residues of the enzymes) of atomic residues is apropos here. Steroidals such as those derived and proposed from Vit D activated forms can open up further speculation as to their appropriateness for heart health or cardiac performance, muscular performance and inflammation and cancer. All these new avenues of research will have to be further studied.
Chronic Inflammation, Immunogeneicity and Disease: new drug discovery.
"Chronic Inflammation, Immunogeneicity and Disease: the promise of new drug discovery." Has appeared in the Biomolecular and Medical Journal (Est. 2008). We are publishing this new paper on the links between chronic inflammation, immunonogeneic response and disease states, such as diabetes, atherosclerosis and cancer, and their links to both nutritionals, Vit D and fructans, in the lower gut, a clue to the linkage between the two factors and other diseases also linked to the prolonged chronic elicitation or aggravation of the inflammation response. We invite editorial oversight on the investigation of the inflammation process including published/unpublished research findings on this exciting and growing field in health research.
There are new monoclonal antibodies administered by subcutaneous injection that can be used against products of genes that help activate inflammation or possibly act to enhance the production of gene products that help modulate the inflammation cascade, with nutritionals. Vaccines would of course not be a functional route, unlike the in vitro, ex vivo therapeutic modality of producing monoclonal antibodies.
The immune response as outlined and small molecules in the inflammatory response could interact in future drug trials and thus affect immunogeneicity in a negative way in fighting disease. Systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) could be used as a model for the study of whether drug trials will have this issue of interactions with the immune system and affect disease fighting ability of the body. The cytokine storm as described elsewhere is an uncontrolled feedback cascade eliciting T cell response and macrophages to the site of infection; however, over response can lead to complications and even death.
(Thank you to our Anon. respondent who gave feedback on the well-known 'cytokine storm' phenomenon.)
Feeds Pre-treatments of Fibrous Crops and v. Farm Byproducts: Steam Explosion (SE)/SO2, Ammoniation, Biobleaching, & Enzyme Technology; Ionic Liquid Deconstructive Fractionation to Separate out Lignan & Saccharolytic Fractions.
We offer here new insights into the dynamics of species involved in the chemical breakdown of lignin including methods to study action of chemical reagents.
Ionic Fluid Fractionation Deconstruction of lignan and saccharolytic fractions in fibre is now a renewable (solvent recyclable) and industrial-class application for treating fibre as the latest development on the block for pre-treatment of substrates such as fibre from crops and various other farm byproducts (a separate review on a WordPress.com blogspot will be posted soon in the near future).
Current Topics in Synthetic Biology Theory and Practice:
A new member in our family of journals at Skye Blue Publications. This continues the scientific saga of investigating metabolises
and cell modeling and its various players in various areas of brain function, cancers and nutrient-secondary disease interactions.
Section I. Neuropharma and Cognitive Enhancement Therapeutics in Gerontological, Psychosocial & Kinesiological Rehabilitation.
Section II. Neurhormonal Immunomodulation.
Section III. Molecular Medicine and Nutrigenomics.
Section IV. Developmental Biology and Physiology.
Last update of this entry: August 03, 2016
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