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Victorias, N. I. R. 6119
Victorias, N. I. R. 6119
Phone: +011-604-945-8408 CA
Fax: +011-604-464-0103 CA
Stock symbol: GMC
We are an industry biotech company for feed and alternative fuels manufacturing. Feedstock from farming is processed/stored/fermented on-farm on a small scale or in industrial-scale feedmills.
Bioprocess Biomass Operations Bio/engineered systems are being conceptualized for on-farm and industrial feed mill settings using genetically modified (GM) low-lignin feedstocks (~30% less) (e. g. straws, stover, bagasse, miscanthus, switchgrass) with SO2/steam explosion (SE) pre-treatment and microbial probiotic ureolytic/lignase type-II by the rapid bagged technique (Ureo-sil process), enzymatic anaerobic ligninolytics (Pro-sile process) with ensilage, GM fungal (e. g. Basidiomycetes) solid substrate fermentation (SSF) with their lignases (Fung-a-cil process), yeast saccharification and SCP supplementation (Yeast-cil process) or the bio-bleaching with lacasse (lignase type-III) (Lys-o-zym process) of feedstock.
SKYENEWS: There is a need to outline further investment opportunities in our planned proprietary bioprocessing of feeds estimated to cost USD$5b in total investment. Outsourcing at home from Toronto ON CANADA for heavy equipment manufacturing (e. g. John Deere, International Harvester) will result in diversification in at least 10 major sugar mills in Negros Occ. province. At this time prominent PR organization(s) locally in the country will be chosen to vet for our contracts to outsource manufacturing and we will lobby with labour, and for transportation including the province's antiquated rail system, to improve infrastructure, and providing for jobs, exports, income, and fiscal budgets for the much needed social programmes provincial wide. As of this news release, we are issuing an announcement from Skye Blue for potential Ph.D. candidates involved in human resource (HR) recruitment as opportunities arise with suggested funding from Canadian agencies such as IDRC/CIDA (Gov't of Canada).
SKYENEWS: With diversification involved with biomass production in sugar milling, including growing investment in heavy industry (e. g. equipment, physical plant, energy sources - coal from imports, bioethanol, cogenerated electricity from biomass, transportation - rail, lorry, barge or shipping) there are two major industrial investment areas for inviting industrialists in equity with initial outlayed stock offerings that is in: aquafarming and marine products, energy conduits or pipelines and transport (i. e. tankers, barges, locomotives/cars/railways, tanker trucks/lorries, roads building and their maintenance). By this time, energy resources will have been sourced and mobilized to end-users in industries using in part collaboration with local companies and foreign, overseas multi-nationals (e. g. Exxon Mobile, Asia-Pacific division).
SKYENEWS: Further diversification plans with the sugar milling companies in Negros Occidental are being viewed as a costly endeavor requiring huge initial outlays of capital, sourcing of heavy industrial equipment, labour to create jobs, utilities including accessing electrical power grids, fuel reserve access from the Western Philippine Sea, for internal industrial manufacturing, & telecommunications, BPO & IT supports. It will require a strong banking system which the Philippines already possesses to stabilize inflation and commodities exchange, political stability and/or good governance, effective law enforcement and protection of democratic rights. Following the model of diversification at the VICMICO Victorias Milling Company in Negros Occidental fish farming (i. e. pond and estuarine) and canning (e. g. tilapia, carp, milkfish) as an export product and the lucrative drawing card of tourism (e. g. Golf and Banquets Club Tours), tourism being a solid earner for the Philippine economy and in future. We are hoping as was announced earlier that prominent PR organizations locally will be vetting for the province's industrial interests and government oversight with hopes that investors will take the reigns in terms of contributing investments into provincial coffers towards progressive development using a young, vibrant human resource-based economy and, in this case, with the sugar industry’s further diversification into mariculture and feeds for livestock production. For those wishing to invest in the Philippine market, creating stock options, buying bonds and securities and monitoring the distribution of wealth in assets within a growing middle classes is part of our agenda.
SKYENEWS: The continuing story of urbanization vis-a-vis land consolidation for agri-business and co-op/multi-national consolidation would involve for e. g. feedstock companies producing energy manufacturing vs agri-feedstock in livestock management co-operatives and job creation. Movement towards peri-urban areas on the otherhand is driven by extended familial ties or communities where there is a dire need for job creation limited by investment and the tourist dollar and infrastructure spending with real estate development to standard maturity acceptable to market standards in the community. Oil and the peace and order situation enforced by engaged forces in the region with the Philippine option for domestication and foreign trade of oil reserves will drive investment to the country further in future.
The state-of-the-art at this time is with industrial pre-treatment (IPT) with chemical means (viz. see others that are biological, physical and thermal) such as with ammoniation and SO2. In fact, SO2/steam explosion (SE) has been suggested for feed pre-treatment using IPT and that this should be annexed to other pre-treatments including the biological pre-treatments outlined above. There is one possible bio-pretreatment using the microbial probiotic ureolytics by the rapid bagged technique (Urea-O-Lyse Process) with an "implant" or GM lignase type-II enzyme annexed with the SO2/SE protocol practicable with physical plants from co-operatives and in industrial mill settings with collection systems.
In a recent survey of the literature available through the web-based databases on our popular search engines like Bing.com and Google.ca we present here the most recent information on Urea-Ammoniation pretreatment of common feeds such as straw, stover and legume haulms (vines from crops).
There is a differentiation between two scenarios: (I) Industrial applications for feed process manufacturing with larger farms including co-operatives. Use of GMO-driven technologies with ureases (plant-soourced such as from soya bean and that of GM sources) above autochthonous levels achieved is a goal; GMO concerns of environmental safety with GMO-feeds using irradiation (UV-C) which is cost-effective may be employed eventually; the methods above uses urea intensively requiring considerable energy input for production. (II) Developing country settings will also use urease-driven technology largely from soya bean plant sources but the N-source willl be from animal litter (e. g. broiler or turkey litter) which is rich in ammonium (NH4+) and organic nitrogen (N) including urea-N. Urea might also be used to supplement this process in addition to litter serving as a dietary supplement to livestock. This latter method should be compared and perhaps used in conjunction with gaseous ammoniation which was tested in rural areas in China under the aegies of FAO, Rome Italy where ammoniation with stalks in solution which has been characterized to breakdown lignocellulose straw structural components effectively should be tested as well for the moisturized ambient ensiled bagged technique of particulate residuals feedstock. Using tank liquid ammonia for NH3(g) applied at moisture levels proscribed and for a period of time to deconstruct the fibre it should be assessed as to the ease, safety and cost of equipment (i. e. tank, truck and equipment lines and valve regulators) and infrastructure (e.g. to guard against seepage and gas escape).
Another issue is that of application to treat and "top dress" the feed substrate further effectively. As it stands, conventional approaches use added urea and the generation of autochthonous activity and / or jackbean and soya bean plant-source ureases added under optimal conditions (deg C / humidity or ambient moisture level with the question as to whether there have been any advances to recent practices.
The first application is that of GM enzyme technology. Organic sourced nitrogen (N) including urea N nutrifies fibrous feedstock and fed with top dressed GM urease (from microbial or plant-sourced urease enzyme technology) with additional urea-N (a chemical input requiring energy) will ammoniate the mass under optimal conditions hermetically for 2 weeks or more to deconstruct the fibre.
It is imperative at this time to study the process of urea's applied role in aiding the selection of beneficial vs. deleterious microbial populations so the mass ammoniates given optimized conditions (at chicken litter / urea addition rates, the T deg / moisture in hermetically sealed bags and the length of time to completion).
A term to describe the anti-microbial action of killing off deleterious bacteria (e. g. putrefactive), selecting out desired or autochthonous spp. and to encourage this form of tropical ensilage as with ammonia-generating urea on the mass avoiding what would be known as putrefactive ensilage and leading to eventual composting, it is pressumed. This needs further investigation or research.
GMO-driven fermentation is not discussed here at length but there are papers in the literature that isolated and characterized spp. for their ureases and can be presumably can be genetically engineered further to improve activity.
Lastly, practices of urea-ammoniation as an ensilage approach especially in the tropics and its settings (e. g. s. farmers and co-operative farming) where they are practicable, cost-effective and acceptable for use by farmers have been found by researchers and their findings available through web-based research. It should be mentioned that the process of urea application as an input for upgrading feed quality (pre-treatment) and supplementation vs. the use of fertilizer for crops still is viewed as cost-effective for farmers in developing countries.
SKYENEWS: The annexation of SO2/steam explosion (SE) with other physical or biological processes in industrial feeds pre-treatment (IPT) has been critiqued as to its basis and/or significance in the critical process of removing the lignous cement between cellulose fibrils and higher ordered structured assemblies (e. g. platelets) with another type of fibre component, hemicellulose, by which the former is 'anchored' in integument of fibrillar architecture. It is believed that physical SO2/SE treatment strips the debris from 'scaling' the fibril structure from lignan residuals or residue in addition to further breaking down bound lignan in addition to just 'loosening' for it to expose the structure to enzymatic attack and hydrolysis of the polymer. It is thought that the current application of IPT, viz. initial SO2/SE treatment followed by lignase attack, from enzymes 'as is' or via fermentation is known to only bring about lower improvements in feed dry matter (DM)/organic matter (OM) digestibility than that which would be commercially significant with animal production and those proposed used likely in intensive feeding regimes.
SKYENEWS: The latest about natural gas (CH4) generation from animal waste [cf. Rusitec (R) digestors with fibre (e. g. pre-treated straw, stover and haulms), whey and protein using Neocallimastix spp. (fungi) and Methanobrevibacter spp., co-culture, above], is a report out from Monroe WA USA where dairy cows are fed flour rejects, eggs past expiration, excess brewers' grain, corn silage, alfalfa and molasses recycling what would otherwise go the the sewers or landfill, and what does not go to feed the dairy herds, to the byproduct "stream" for the anaerobic digester in Monroe WA's Werkhoven Dairy's Qualco Energy's powerhouse carried by underground pipes into a "mixing bowl", a vat leading to an underground chamber, where alcohol and other "sloppy" protein and fat for energy are added in addition to the "cow pies" of manure that goes through a complex treatment system and piped to this anaerobic digester, a mile away from the farm. The result produced is in addition to dairy are solids for manure and liquids for eventual field spraying on the farm and methane gas (natural gas) that generates 450 kwatt-hours of power for the Puget Sound grid for 300 of its consumers.
SKYENEWS: At Skye Blue, along trends in cellulosic ethanol production and development, use of new enzymes especially lignases (see: lignase-type II) will make the enzyme cocktail (cf. to Novozyme's CTec3) more efficient after physical disruption with steam/SO2 and fermentation expected from 70%, and up, of the glucose from bagasse; yeast that breaks down cellulose and ferments glucose to ethanol will also be developed for higher tolerance to endproducts; the growing trend for use of biorenewable green fuels, despite large existent and available reserves of fossil-sourced fuels, albeit, supply and security issues and world fuel prices, will make Brazil, a world leader in use of biorenewables from sugarcane and corn in the future; switchgrass, miscanthus, corn stover, wheat straw and other sources of glucose for ethanol and other longer-chain alcohols, more energy dense, will also be used. Biorenewables and other forms of clean energy will be impacted continually with fossil oil and CH4 gas reserves. In the Philippines, heightened controversy with China over the western sea off-shore deep sea areas around the Spratley and Scarborough Islands with reserves of est. 11 billion barrels of oil plus several trillion gallons of natural gas, second only to Saudi Arabia in world reserves. Confrontations and deployments, exploration rights, UN and regional arbitrations, technology agreements, refining facilities, distribution and shipment affecting supply of fossil fuels, will determine the 'other side' with biorenewables with its own issues of demand for and encroachment on grain feed supplies and new developments of by-product feeding outside human food supplies. Bioethanol as a biofuel will continue to mature as a viable commercialized operation (viz. Brazil, as we speak) and in a pro-active manner a step ahead of the conventional fuels industry. In the Philippine-China scenario, foreign relations will be dealt with to follow international rule of law (viz. the commercializable 200 nautical mi. offshore limit) and aggressive trade agreements overseas (viz. China with its purchase of energy companies and use of western pipelines to export from Western Canada).
SKYENEWS: The question in the Philippines of increased militarization by China (Peoples Republic of) in the South China Sea will present issues and perspectives with: seeking regional collaboration and regional alliances amidst the undeniable spectre of superpowers flexing their muscle or presence in the region (e. g. the U. S. A.) and aid from militarized nations like Japan against Chinese hegemony in the region, building up weapons munitions, capabilities with attack fighters and navy cruisers and cooperative military exercises, and seeking the greater of diplomacy and continuing dialogue and mutual agreements including biotech's new role in arbitering food vs. fuel debates and trade agreements world-wide for fuel sources including "greener" sources. The U. S. itself may present new perspectives in this still new area of debate. BP PLC, Shell Royal Dutch PLC, Chevron Corp., Petrobas of Brazil and their recent off-shore finds, Pemex in Mexico, Exxon Mobile (Asia-Pacific and Africa and Power divisions) and off-shore liquefied natural gas (LNG), ONGC in India can all collaborate to engage in deep-sea oil rig exploration. Based on industrialization and urbanization in India and its size economy would be a likely client for Philippine oil demand. There are already collaborations of interest with Indian subcontinent contractors and infrastructure projects including the new Cebu-Mactan International Airport. Apart from industrial use, transportation, military, domestic and tourism, oil reserves may come under a resource nationalism clause to protect and manage resource exploitation. New oil wells up to 9,500 meters deep are deployable under high pressure (psi). See: INC, Hum-Molgen.De here for more on resource-based wealth and how the Arabs have built prosperity for their peoples. Royalties, good or honest governance and investment in a strong, secure banking system can be used in countries like the Philippines.
SKYENEWS: The recent welcome to inventors and design engineers has been called for as an open bid at Skye Blue for one co-op plant milling machine processing component for feeds, that is, yeast bagasse, which improves the N protein content of bagasse feed and its rumen cellulosic digestibility. A mock-up for a shredder/baler in order to reduce and pre-mix solids with liquids at a T (deg C)/pressure, expressing the solids (with the single cell protein, SCP) fraction and with the recycle of the liquid culture innoculant back into its incubator or holding cell, post shredding/mixing. The output is processed to end-product using a pair-roller, extruder pressing machine with grain/molasses binder.
SKYENEWS: Biofine resources have conventionally defined as feedstock that is fibrous (e. g. paper, trees, agroindustrial byproducts and crops) and starch with intermediates to products (e. g. commodity chemicals, specialty chemicals, herbicides/pesticides, heating oil and transportation fuels) (see: http://www.biofinetechnology.com) which we have 'redefined' to expand the meaning herein also to be residuals (e. g. molasses, lignan and organic fertilizer) from feedstock derived from plants, aquatic sea grasses and seaweed for feeds, asphalt and fuels and the latter two as surrogate for GM manufacture of bio-oils or biodiesel and fatty acid alcohols and to be used for specialty fine chemicals (e. g. paints, solvents, resins, fillers, lubricants, etc.) manufacture.
SKYENEWS: An annexed technology with biofeedstock from marine biomass (e. g. seagrasses, seaweed, algal) is the introduction of anti-protozoal technology in feeding either via immunocontrol in the rumen or with anti-protozoal substances that exist naturally from browse herbage that can boost significantly protein utilization on these and basal rations consisting of low quality byproduct residual feedstocks from farm and agro-industrial cropping. These technologies can be as significant as others touted as with dual-purpose cropping, ammoniation and feeding fungi probiotic cultures in animal feeding of livestock.
SKYENEWS: In feeds processing, agents to treat feeds to improve digestibility and improve nutritive value including adding water-soluble carbohydrates (WSCs) and protected / low-protease technology with pre-formed amino acids (PFAAs) for microbial cultures involving fungi, yeast and Lactobacilli such as in yeast bagasse, solid substrate fermentation (SSF) and temperate ensilage which still have to be optimized and then used, applying WSCs and PFAAs technology in general across crops for feeds and energy production as has been mentioned with research for D. A. Flores [Cf: Lux Esto e-Zine of Kalamazoo College MI USA] See: cellular biomolecular hypotheses proposed by this author researcher-for the WSC (e. g. fructans) and PFAAs, the APPS (amino acids + peptides) on possibly processes of: cellular mitosis, apoptosis, energetics (see: uncoupling in E. coli), rate of transport synthesis, on efficiency of microbial cell protein (MCP) synthesis.
We see potential in developing major engineering systems in post-harvest technology or processing, storage and bio-fermentation systems together with the issues with agriculture resource commodity diversification and trade relationships with strategic (e. g. bioenergy and grain reserves) and non-strategic (e. g. animal products) commodities. Brazil is already a developing agro-biotechnology giant and has industries and a capacity from present agricultural production systems. The French are key players in agricultural development and design & engineering, including INRA, an agronomic-related research institute and network.
Other feed technology around feedstock resource utilization include initiatives with pre-biotic approaches to cropping as one of the most low-cost alternatives together with pro-biotics as options. Examples of pre-biotic approaches include: decreasing proteolysis in the rumen with non-lethal protected protein-dosed crops and residues as dual-purpose cultivars, plant protease-inhibited field-dried harvested forages and field grazed forages and use of peptidic ionophores (e.g. avoparcin which required further structure-functional studies in research with other peptides) which increases propionic acid and flow of protein from the rumen, water-soluble carbohydrates (WSCHO) (e. g. sucrose, fructans, glucose and fructose) which increases nitrogen capture, microbial protein synthesis, digestibility and energy availability and intake. Enzyme technology is already conclusive in its effects on ensilage and improving silage quality and utilization and including the role of sugars and energy availability, protein and peptide/amino acid supply in silage and heat protection of proteins.
In chemical bio/engineering systems there are parallels seen between feeding and energy bio/fermentation systems approaches. Mechanized approaches have to be developed to bring this processing systems about. In rural settings (e. g. North Korea, largely underdeveloped and still largely plagued by poverty but with engineering capacity such as movements in militarization) intensified cropping with co-operatives, aid from mechanization, feed/biomass milling and biofermentation (a more sophisticated process of these) for feeds processing and bioenergy is a model that can be used for movement away from such settings to more intensive, industrialized ones. Note, that energy is a critical input in addition to biomass from cropping and engineered mechanization.
Simple combustion with O2 of biomass as 'green' energy is a viable option for biomass such as the U.K. targeting 15% of its energy away from coal and natural gas (polluting and expensive) to 'green' by 2020 such as with wood chip, sunflower seed hulls and animal faeces. Agro-industrial by-products (AIBPs) as sources for livestock feeding in subsistence farming settings in developing countries and developed countries from farm, food and other industries can now be used as bioenergy in milling in their plant operations for industrial pretreatment (IPT) feeds processing.
Biomass use for energy is an ongoing issue, viz. to take an e.g., in Russia and former Soviet socialist republics. Where there are conventional energy reserves (viz. hydrocarbons such as coal, oil and CH4) there, this has been shown to work (viz. transport, heating, manufacturing, cooking, etc.) efficiently and appropriately well with ongoing continued use; there is the issue of course of continuing export (e. g. to Western and Eastern Europe) as should be and to the poorer countries, and where biomass systems use is still unfortunately not in place; in Western countries there is the issue of global warming and the need to turn to "greener" energy where biomass, as highlighted previously (e. g.: biomass and the U. K.), can be used; additionally conventional sources such as nuclear power will be outdated and displaced, due to age of reactors and the horrific results from earthquakes and tsunamis, in Japan. How much will renewables (including biomass energy) gain ascendancy? Countries like Germany, Belgium, Switzerland and Japan have just announced their renewed pursuit of renewables.
There are areas that biotech in developing nations need addressing, namely, food security, health and manufacturing of various biomass-based materials including phyto-polycarbons for biorenewable plastics and the new nanotechnology. Social security will be addressed eventually with technological investment and industrialization but the role of entrepreneurs and technocrats (i. e. scientist-class individuals who have the expertise, knowledge and who make decisions with science and technology in their societies) in bringing about BPO and technology transfer as well as technological developments with local science and technology capacity need further elucidation. In the Philippines cloning reproductive physiology is being used per scientist for evolving v. high lactating dairy breeds in water buffalo. At Skye Blue we are proposing deregulation or generic GMO development with trade or sale at what would be reduced cost or pricing for greater use by the average farmer and the market.
ADVERT/NEW FEATURE. 2013 (c). Monthly Newsletter: "Sugarcane as Feed for Energy". Biomass as it will increasingly be used as a bioresource as feed, food and for bioenergy alternatives will become critical in the coming years. Already, there are changes with the demand and process for producing cellulosic ethanol from switchgrass and bagasse as sources of fibre as well as straws (e. g. rice, wheat), stovers (e. g. corn, sorghum) and legume haulms. Sugarcane is one of the most efficient producers of biomass for energy from the sun, making it a major source for both producing bioenergy and feed, in addition to sugar-making and further to energy or cellulosic ethanol, in the tropics and subtropics. Two apparent strategies could be used for producing energy from sugarcane as feed using and contrasting prebiotic and feeds pre-treatment approaches: a) sugarcane tops, to be ensiled, genetically modified (GM) for higher energy in the whole plant for lower lignin and addition of more soluble, non-structural carbohydrates which ferment more readily in the rumen stomachs of livestock and increase microbial protein synthesis and introducing relatively insoluble GM albumins for nitrogen (N) which is (i.e. total nitrogen, TN) relatively low in sugarcane tops and b) lowering lignin content in the sugarcane tops (leaves, sheaths and stalk) and derinded, mechanically pressed and ground bagasse stalk, subjected to GM-improved (i.e. boosted) ureolysis or ammoniation with introduced GM anaerobic lignases in sealed bags en silo with urea added at the optimum temperature and moisture content over the time period of weeks. It should be taken that an overall effective combined approach could be: decreasing lignin content/increasing C-sink organelles in a biosafe and physiological sound manner and without any liability to pest vulnerability, as was referred to previously with whole plant in the tops, and an added approach of using steam explosion (SE) /sulfur dioxide (SO2), using energy biomass co-generation, to disrupt the micro-fibrillar structure before its pre-treatment with enzymes and ammoniation, will improve digestibility dramatically and would be revolutionary to feeding fibrous agricultural residues (FAR) on an industrial scale. [Alternatively, the use of "Yeast Bagasse" would be ideal to breakdown microfibrils and partially saccharify them to sugars and supplement the bulk fibrous biomass with added biomass from single-cell protein (SCP).]
SKYENEWS: There are similarities and differences between three "competing" post-harvest feed technologies involving agriwastes in livestock nutrition and for bioenergy production: 1) "Yeast Bagasse" with non-GMO approaches using current patented, commercial processes involving spp. like Candida utilis; yeast fungus, var. Major; and Trichoderma viride fermentation treatment with product mixed with crushed, dried sugarcane tops (SCT) plus cereals rolled and dried to the specified shape as the final product (see: Kimura, Y., 1972, US patents) which involves capital costs with investment in processing plus chemical and energy, amongst other major inputs; GMO approaches might involve novel hosts such as Cryptococcus albidus and Trichoderma viride with "piggy-backed" ligninolytic enzymes (MnP- and LiP-type I's, Lac-type III) from Basidiomycetes, Phanerochaete chrysosporium and Pleurotus ostreatus; 2) Solid-Substrate Fermentation (SSF)- non-GMO approaches such as with Ganoderma lucidum, a Basidiomycetes, white-rot fungi, although researched for a few decades, nevertheless, represents a breakthrough in ligninolysis of fibre (significant depolymerization occurs and wholly with the lignin component) but still requires capital investment for processing considered costly in developing countries; 3) and now considered the new kid on the block: Urea-ammoniation which by its nature needs further optimization with GMO approaches such "piggybacking" ligninolytic enzymes (type-II, an anaerobic class, and further, endoglucanases such as cellulases and hemicellulases) in addition to capital costs of processing using low-capitalized silo bagged techniqu with a GMO-Biosafe Plant Facility outfitted with a UV-C irradiation processing capability. UV-C irradiation may be the way to go in future with GE feeds processing facilities if they are to be foodsafe and biosafe for consumer and environment GMOs being present in feeds.
SKYENEWS:This is a creative push on Skye Blue's part to move 'along the rough and winding road' from Tanjay in Negros, Visayas, the Philippines, to Victorias where potential organizational and infrastructural advantages offers considerable opportunity and perspectives in building business operations in marine resources biomass operations and processing systems for various products including biomass for energy, organo-chemicals, pharma and other recombinant protein products (RPPs) from both landed protected photobioreactors and off-shore and low-lying seaweed and seagrass meadows for harvest and transport to processing plants and the great potential benefit to agribusiness from agricultural byproducts for small farmer use.
SKYENEWS:Protein storage vesicles (PSVs) have found a new technology in nanotechnology, that is, 'magneto-beads' that bind and separate out recombinant protein products (RPPs) - bearing vesicles using this new and unique technology. (Cf.: advertisers at hum-molgen.de, biomedical cos., for new products and services allied to technologies purveyed on these websites for our cos.)
Advances in Cropping for Feed Production for Farmed Livestock. Biotech "De-risking": 1) Genomics editing - making genetic engineering (GE) more palatable for the consumer? With genomics editing is upregulation / downregulation of genes using reverse / direct repression, 2) Mitochondrial DNA segregation to avoid spread of DNA via pollination with flowering. These are just some examples addressing issues of health safety, food safety to the consumer, biological "drift" and biodiversity in nature. The ff. pharming or cropping approaches at SkyeBlue have been proposed: 1) Low-protease Forages such as with pasture grasses and non-leguminous browse plants, 2) Hi-Sugar Grasses: marker-assisted selection (MAS) bred or genetic modification (GM) in pasture or rangelands, sugarcane and shrublands with trees & shrubs, 3) Low-Lignin Forages via biosynthesis blocking and advances in modifying the nature of lignin through its biosynthesis, 4) Extracellular Fibrolytic Enzymes (EFEs) (e. g. cellulases, lignases) used as ensilage top dressing or as in inoculant, in the "Yeast Bagasse Process", the Solid Substrate Fermentation (SSF) Process, and Urea-Ammoniation Process. There are ongoing issues with these cropping improvements in their seed regards claims and their application and socio-economic effects as to patenting rights and licensing. The international bodies responsible for overseeing the application and distribution of intellectual properties rights and their benefits to this respect will be seen to as in the past.
Farming Systems in Western Canada with Agrotechnology (agricultural and bioresource engineering) advancements are also included in previous discussions, here at hum-molgen.de.
I. Farms of the future for beef vs. dairy will involve assets of feedstock vs. livestock and hardwired (computers, electronics and communications, mechanized equipment) vs. free-standing infrastructure (glass, steel & concrete). Feedstocks include: 1) pasture: low-lignin, low-protease, high-fructan; 2) silage: low-lignin, top-dressed solid-substrate fermentation (SSF) lacasses (type-III lignases); 3) haylage: low-lignin, top-dressed SSF lacasse; 4) ligno-cellulose (L-C) feedstock: SSF, "Yeast Bagasse Process", ureolysis (providing also non-protein nitrogen, NPN or single cell protein, SCP, equivalents); 5) L-C feedstock: bio-bleaching (L-C feedstock is used also for bioenergy fermenta-tion to biogas, EtOH and ButOH), so-called cellulose diversification with, e. g. bagasse and straw which can be profitable in itself vs. proceeding onto EtOH manufacturing. Livestock is classed as either: 1) beef: feed type would be for e. g. low-protease, high-fructan and 2) dairy: feed type would be for e. g. low-lignin as with alfalfa for hi-energy or hi-acetate.
These are envisioned for the 'FHTM' Bio-Hub in British Columbia to be fed by the Western Prairie provinces for their resources in various feedstocks to be diversified in this way for manufacturing and farming for food production out West. Abundant rail will provide for transport of commodities with shipment from port.
II. Genetically Manipulated (GM) and Genetically Modified Organismal (GMO) Feeds Technologies: the Future Challenge. GMO Feeds / MAS Bred Feeds. 1) Low-lignin – hi-energy feeds for dairy; 2) heat-treated / low-protease – hi-prutein (protein from rumen vs per os) feeds for beef; 3) hi-fructan – hi-prutein feeds for beef production; 4) 'Sile-Pro' system using low-lignin and microbial cellulase innoculant "piggy-backed" SSF-lacasse enzyme technology; 5) hi-sugar pasture (e. g. ryegrass). Pre-treatment of L-C Feeds: 1) “Yeast Bagasse” Process cellulase "piggy-backed" with type-III lignases, 2) Urea-ammoniation with "piggy-backed' type II lignases and 3) Solid-Substrate Fermentation (SSF); see: paper on breakthrough with lacasse-bearing host Ganoderma lucidum.
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Last update of this entry: January 09, 2017
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